As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on April 12, 2022.

Registration No. 333-                 

 

 

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

 

FORM S-1
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

 

Xos, Inc.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)

 

 

 

Delaware   3711   98-1550505
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
  (Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code No.)
  (I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

 

3550 Tyburn Street
Los Angeles, California 90065
Tel: (818) 316-1890
(Address, Including Zip Code, and Telephone Number, Including Area Code, of Registrant’s Principal Executive Offices)

 

 

 

Christen Romero
General Counsel
Xos, Inc.
3550 Tyburn Street
Los Angeles, California 90065
Tel: (818) 316-1890
(Name, Address, Including Zip Code, and Telephone Number, Including Area Code, of Agent for Service)

 

 

 

Copies to:
Dave Peinsipp
Rachel Proffitt
Cooley LLP
3 Embarcadero Center, 20th Floor
San Francisco, California 94111
Tel: (415) 693-2000

 

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after the effective date of this registration statement.

 

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, please check the following box. ☒

 

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

 

  Large accelerated filer Accelerated filer
  Non-accelerated filer Smaller reporting company
      Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act 

 

The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment that specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. Neither we nor the selling securityholder may sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS SUBJECT TO COMPLETION — DATED April 12, 2022

 

 

Up to 16,160,214 Shares of Common Stock

 

This prospectus relates to the resale of up to 16,160,214 shares (the “Shares”) of our common stock, $0.0001 par value per share (the “Common Stock”), by YA II PN, LTD., a Cayman Islands exempt limited partnership (the “Selling Securityholder”). The shares included in this prospectus consist of shares of Common Stock that we have issued or that we may, in our discretion, elect to issue and sell to the Selling Securityholder, from time to time after the date of this prospectus, pursuant to a standby equity purchase agreement we entered into with the Selling Securityholder on March 23, 2022 (the “Purchase Agreement”), in which the Selling Securityholder has committed to purchase from us, at our direction, up to $125,000,000 of our Common Stock, subject to terms and conditions specified in the Purchase Agreement. Concurrently with our execution of the Purchase Agreement on March 23, 2022, we issued 18,582 shares of Common Stock to the Selling Securityholder as consideration for its irrevocable commitment to purchase shares of our Common Stock at our election in our discretion, from time to time after the date of this prospectus, upon the terms and subject to the satisfaction of the conditions set forth in the Purchase Agreement. See the section entitled “Committed Equity Financing” for a description of the Purchase Agreement and the section entitled “Selling Securityholder” for additional information regarding the Selling Securityholder.

 

Our registration of the securities covered by this prospectus does not mean that the Selling Securityholder will offer or sell any of the shares of Common Stock. The Selling Securityholder may offer, sell or distribute all or a portion of their shares of Common Stock publicly or through private transactions at prevailing market prices or at negotiated prices. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares of Common Stock by the Selling Securityholder pursuant to this prospectus. However, we may receive up to $125,000,000 in aggregate gross proceeds from sales of our Common Stock to the Selling Securityholder that we may, in our discretion, elect to make, from time to time after the date of this prospectus, pursuant to the Purchase Agreement. We provide more information about how the Selling Securityholder may sell or otherwise dispose the shares of our Common Stock in the section entitled “Plan of Distribution.” The Selling Securityholder is an “underwriter” within the meaning of Section 2(a)(11) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”).

 

We are an “emerging growth company” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and are subject to reduced public company reporting requirements. This prospectus complies with the requirements that apply to an issuer that is an emerging growth company.

 

Our Common Stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Market (“Nasdaq”) under the symbols “XOS.” On April 11, 2022, the closing price of our Common Stock was $2.70.

 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. See the section entitled “Risk Factors” beginning on page 8 of this prospectus to read about factors you should consider before buying our securities.

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

The date of this prospectus is April 12, 2022.

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

    Page
ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS   ii
CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS   iii
PROSPECTUS SUMMARY   1
THE OFFERING   7
RISK FACTORS   8
COMMITTED EQUITY FINANCING   45
USE OF PROCEEDS   50
MARKET INFORMATION FOR COMMON STOCK AND DIVIDEND POLICY   51
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS   52
BUSINESS   68
MANAGEMENT   86
EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION   94
CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS   100
PRINCIPAL SECURITYHOLDERS   104
SELLING SECURITYHOLDER   106
DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES   108
MATERIAL UNITED STATES FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSEQUENCES   118
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION   122
LEGAL MATTERS   124
EXPERTS   124
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION   124
INDEX TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS   F-1

 

You should rely only on the information provided in this prospectus, as well as the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement. Neither we nor the Selling Securityholder have authorized anyone to provide you with different information. Neither we nor the Selling Securityholder are making an offer of these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer is not permitted. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement is accurate as of any date other than the date of the applicable document. Since the date of this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed.

 

i

 

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

 

This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form S-1 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) using the “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, the Selling Securityholder may, from time to time, sell the securities offered by them described in this prospectus. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of the securities offered by the Selling Securityholder described in this prospectus.

 

Neither we nor the Selling Securityholder have authorized anyone to provide you with any information or to make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectuses prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. Neither we nor the Selling Securityholder take responsibility for, or provide any assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. Neither we nor the Selling Securityholder will make an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

We may also provide a prospectus supplement or post-effective amendment to the registration statement to add information to, or update or change information contained in, this prospectus. You should read both this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement or post-effective amendment to the registration statement together with the additional information to which we refer you in the sections of this prospectus entitled “Where You Can Find More Information.”

 

On August 20, 2021, as contemplated by the Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated as of February 21, 2021, as amended on May 14, 2021 (the “Merger Agreement”), by and among NextGen Acquisition Corporation, a Cayman Islands exempted company limited by shares (“NextGen”), Sky Merger Sub I, Inc., a Delaware corporation and a direct wholly owned subsidiary of NextGen (“Merger Sub”), and Xos, Inc., a Delaware corporation (now known as Xos Fleet, Inc., “Legacy Xos”), consummated the merger transactions contemplated by the Merger Agreement, whereby (i) Merger Sub merged with and into Legacy Xos, the separate corporate existence of Merger Sub ceased and Legacy Xos became the surviving corporation and a wholly owned subsidiary of NextGen (“Xos” or the “Company,” and such transaction the “Merger” or the “Business Combination”). Immediately prior to the closing of the Merger (the “Closing” and such date of the Closing, the “Closing Date”), NextGen changed its jurisdiction of incorporation from the Cayman Islands to the State of Delaware by deregistering as an exempted company in the Cayman Islands and domesticating and continuing as a corporation formed under the laws of the State of Delaware. In connection with the Business Combination, NextGen changed its name to Xos, Inc.

 

Unless the context indicates otherwise, references in this prospectus to the “Company,” “Xos,” “we,” “us,” “our” and similar terms refer to Xos, Inc. (f/k/a NextGen Acquisition Corporation) and its consolidated subsidiaries (including Legacy Xos). References to “NextGen” refer to our predecessor company prior to the consummation of the Business Combination.

 

ii

 

 

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This prospectus contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). We have based these forward-looking statements on our current expectations and projections about future events. All statements, other than statements of present or historical fact included in this prospectus are forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terminology such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intends,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “possible,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “will,” “would” or the negative of such terms or other similar expressions. These forward-looking statements are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and assumptions about us that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. We caution you that these forward-looking statements are subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, most of which are difficult to predict and many of which are beyond our control.

 

As a result of a number of known and unknown risks and uncertainties, our actual results or performance may be materially different from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. Some factors that could cause actual results to differ include:

 

our ability to successfully commercialize our Fleet-as-a-Service offering to customers over time;

 

delays in the design, manufacturing and wide-spread deployment of our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs;

 

our ability to grow market share in our existing markets or any new markets we may enter;

 

our ability to successfully complete strategic relationships and alliances with third parties or acquisitions in the future;

 

our ability to recognize the anticipated benefits of the Business Combination (as defined below) and proceeds from the concurrent private placement, which may be affected by, among other things, competition and the ability of the combined business to grow and manage growth profitably;

 

changes in domestic and foreign business, market, financial, political and legal conditions;

 

changes in applicable laws or regulations;

 

the outcome of any legal proceedings against us;

 

our financial and business performance, including financial projections and business metrics and any underlying assumptions thereunder;

 

changes in our strategy, future operations, financial position, estimated revenues and losses, projected costs, prospects and plans;

 

our ability to maintain an effective system of internal controls over financial reporting;

 

our ability to respond to general economic conditions, including supply chain delays or interruptions that may occur;

 

our ability to manage our growth effectively;

 

our ability to achieve and maintain profitability in the future;

 

iii

 

 

our ability to access sources of capital, including debt financing and other sources of capital to finance operations and growth;

 

our ability to maintain and enhance our products and brand, and to attract customers;

 

our ability to execute our business model, including market acceptance of our planned products and services and achieving sufficient production volumes at acceptable quality levels and prices;

 

ability to source certain of our critical inventory items, including battery cells, semiconductor chips and vehicle bodies and aluminum;

 

our ability to successfully manage supply shortages and disruptions, product delivery delays, and anticipate costs and production timing in light of those challenges;

 

our ability to scale in a cost-effective manner, including hiring qualified personnel, particularly during recent hiring difficulties, to meet our manufacturing and delivery goals;

 

developments and projections relating to our competitors and industry;

 

general economic and political conditions, such as the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, recessions, interest rates, local and national elections, fuel prices, international currency fluctuations, corruption, political instability and acts of war or military conflict, including repercussions of the recent military conflict between Russia and Ukraine, or terrorism on our business and the actions the we may take in response thereto;

 

our expectations regarding our ability to obtain and maintain intellectual property protection and not infringe on the rights of others;

 

expectations regarding the time during which we will be an emerging growth company under the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, as amended;

 

our future capital requirements and sources and uses of cash;

 

the outcome of any known and unknown litigation and regulatory proceedings; and

 

other risks and uncertainties set forth in this prospectus in the section entitled “Risk Factors”.

 

Given these risks and uncertainties, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. Additional cautionary statements or discussions of risks and uncertainties that could affect our results or the achievement of the expectations described in forward-looking statements may also be contained in any accompanying prospectus supplement.

 

Although we believe that the assumptions underlying the forward-looking statements contained herein are reasonable, any of the assumptions could be inaccurate, and therefore such statements included in this prospectus may not prove to be accurate. Should one or more of the risks or uncertainties described in this prospectus, or should underlying assumptions prove incorrect, actual results and plans could differ materially from those expressed in any forward-looking statements. In light of the significant uncertainties inherent in the forward-looking statements included herein, the inclusion of such information should not be regarded as a representation by us or any other person that the results or conditions described in such statements or our objectives and plans will be achieved. Additional information concerning these and other factors that may impact the operations and projections discussed herein can be found in the section entitled “Risk Factors” and in our periodic filings with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available publicly on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.

 

You should read this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement completely and with the understanding that our actual future results, levels of activity and performance as well as other events and circumstances may be materially different from what we expect. Forward-looking statements and such risks, uncertainties and other factors speak only as of the date of this prospectus, and we expressly disclaim any obligation or undertaking to update or revise any forward-looking statement contained herein to reflect any change in our expectations with regard thereto, or any other change in events, conditions or circumstances on which any such statement is based, except to the extent otherwise required by law. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.

  

iv

 

 

 

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

 

This summary highlights selected information appearing in this prospectus. Because it is a summary, it may not contain all of the information that may be important to you. To understand this offering fully, you should read this entire prospectus carefully, including the information set forth in the sections entitled “Risk Factors,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” “Business” and the consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus before making an investment decision.

 

The Company

 

We are a mobility solutions company manufacturing Class 5 to 8 battery-electric commercial vehicles. We facilitate the transition of fleets from internal combustion engine vehicles to zero-emission vehicles with proprietary technology suited to the commercial use case. We also provide a range of services to facilitate the transition of fleets to electric vehicles, including charging infrastructure, vehicle maintenance, financing and service.

 

Our X-Platform (our proprietary, purpose-built vehicle chassis platform) and X-Pack (our proprietary battery system) provide modular features that allow us to accommodate a wide range of last-mile applications and enable us to offer clients at a lower total cost of ownership compared to traditional diesel fleets. The X-Platform, our chassis platform, and X-Pack, our battery technology, are available for purchase as part of the Xos vehicle. The X-Platform and X-Pack were both engineered to be modular in nature to allow fleet operators to customize their vehicles to fit their commercial applications (e.g., upfitting with a specific vehicle body and/or tailoring battery range). In addition to a competitive vehicle purchase price, our technology can also drive savings throughout ownership through increased vehicle uptime, greater payload capacity and reduced service and maintenance expense. Ninety percent of vehicles in our targeted segments operate on routes under 200 miles per shift (referred to as “last-mile” routes). Vehicles that fulfill these predictable last-mile routes generally return to base hubs on a daily basis. Such vehicles are ideal candidates for electrification as operators are able to connect them to dedicated charging infrastructure at return-to-base hubs. Our modular and cost-effective vehicles have been on the road and in customers’ hands since 2018, further validating the durability of satisfaction with our vehicles. During the year ended December 31, 2021, we sold 22 vehicles and 22 powertrains, respectively. Since inception and up to December 31, 2021, we have delivered 71 vehicles and powertrains combined. Actual sales performance during the current year is down relative to anticipated deliveries due to delay in our battery production activities, which has resulted in manufacturing backlog in our vehicle assembly line.

 

We have taken a conservative approach to capital investment with our Flex manufacturing strategy, which leverages our strategic partners’ existing facilities and labor to assemble up to 5,000 vehicles annually per facility once fully ramped up. This strategy will enable us to scale our operations in a capital efficient manner and in lockstep with market demand. We have partnered with two third-party contract manufacturer partners to operate two Flex facilities. Our Flex facilities are currently tooled to produce up to approximately 2,000 vehicles per annum in total, assuming we are able to mitigate current supply chain constraints.

 

Our Fleet-as-a-Service product facilitates the transition from traditional internal combustion engine vehicles to battery electric vehicles and provides fleet operators with a comprehensive set of solutions and products (including, but not limited to, Energy Services, service and maintenance, vehicle telematics, OTA updates and financing) to transition to and to operate an electric fleet. This product offering will combine traditionally disaggregated services into a bundled service package, thus reducing the cost and friction associated with electrifying commercial fleets. Services to be offered in our Fleet-as-a-Service offerings include our proprietary technologies and in-house services and offerings from our industry partners. Our Fleet-as-a-Service offering includes (i) Energy Services (on-site vehicle charging infrastructure as well as our proprietary mobile charging unit Xos HubTM); (ii) service and maintenance (provided by our internal maintenance team and industry partners); (iii) replacement parts; (iv) financing via our external partners; (v) risk mitigation products (e.g., GAP insurance and warranties); and (vi) our telematics unit, the Xosphere Intelligence Platform. Fleet-as-a-Service is expected to increase the lifetime revenue of each vehicle sold by us. For the year-ended December 31, 2021, we have generated $4.9 million in revenue (or 97% of revenue) from vehicle sales and $0.1 million from ancillary revenue (or 3% of revenue).

 

1

 

 

We believe our growth in the coming years is supported by the strong secular tailwinds of an increased focus on the impact of climate change and the growth of e-commerce and last-mile delivery. Commercial trucks are the largest emitters of greenhouse gases per capita in the transportation industry. The U.S. federal, state and foreign governments, along with corporations such as FedEx, UPS and Amazon, have set ambitious goals to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Simultaneously, e-commerce continues to grow rapidly and has been accelerated by changes in consumer purchasing behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic. We believe the increased regulation relating to commercial vehicles, the launch of sustainability initiatives from leading financial and corporate institutions and the rapid growth of last-mile logistics will fuel accelerated adoption of our products worldwide.

 

Our principal executive office is located at 3550 Tyburn Street, Los Angeles, CA 90065. Our telephone number is (818) 316-1890.

 

For more information, see the sections entitled “Business” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”

 

Committed Equity Financing

 

On March 23, 2022, we entered into the Standby Equity Purchase Agreement (the “Purchase Agreement”), with YA II PN, LTD., a Cayman Islands exempt limited partnership (the “Selling Securityholder” or “Yorkville”). Pursuant to the Purchase Agreement, we have the right to sell to Yorkville up to $125,000,000 of shares of our Common Stock, subject to certain limitations and conditions set forth in the Purchase Agreement, from time to time during the term of the Purchase Agreement. Sales of Common Stock to Yorkville under the Purchase Agreement, and the timing of any such sales, are at our option, and we are under no obligation to sell any securities to Yorkville under the Purchase Agreement. In accordance with our obligations under the Purchase Agreement, we have filed the registration statement that includes this prospectus with the SEC to register under the Securities Act the resale by Yorkville of up to 16,160,214 shares of Common Stock, consisting of 18,582 shares of Common Stock that we issued to Yorkville in consideration of its commitment to purchase shares of Common Stock at our election under to the Purchase Agreement, and up to 16,141,632 shares of Common Stock that we may elect, in our sole discretion, to issue and sell to Yorkville, from time to time under the Purchase Agreement.

 

Upon the satisfaction of the conditions to Yorkville’s purchase obligation set forth in the Purchase Agreement, including that the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part be declared effective by the SEC and the final form of this prospectus is filed with the SEC, we will have the right, but not the obligation, from time to time at our discretion until the first day of the month following the 36-month period after the date of the Purchase Agreement, to direct Yorkville to purchase a specified amount of shares of Common Stock (each such sale, an “Advance”) by delivering written notice to Yorkville (each, an “Advance Notice”). While there is no mandatory minimum amount for any Advance, it may not exceed the lesser of (i) $20,000,000 or (ii) a certain percentage of the average daily trading volume during regular trading hours for the three trading days immediately preceding an Advance Notice, unless a different amount is agreed to by the Yorkville and us.

 

The per share purchase price for the shares of Common Stock, if any, that we elect to sell to the Selling Securityholder in an Advance pursuant to the Purchase Agreement will be determined by reference to the volume weighted average price of our Common Stock (the “VWAP”) and calculated in accordance with the Purchase Agreement, less a variable discount ranging from 3% to 5%, provided however that the Company may establish a minimum acceptable price in each Advance Notice below which it shall not be obligated to make any sales to the Selling Securityholder.

 

There is no upper limit on the price per share that Yorkville could be obligated to pay for the Common Stock we may elect to sell to it in any Advance. The purchase price per share of Common Stock that we may elect to sell to Yorkville in an Advance under the Purchase Agreement will be equitably adjusted for any reorganization, recapitalization, non-cash dividend, stock split, reverse stock split or other similar transaction.

 

We will control the timing and amount of any sales of Common Stock to Yorkville. Actual sales of shares of our Common Stock to Yorkville under the Purchase Agreement will depend on a variety of factors to be determined by us from time to time, which may include, among other things, market conditions, the trading price of our Common Stock and determinations by us as to the appropriate sources of funding for our business and its operations.

 

2

 

 

Under the applicable Nasdaq rules, in no event may we issue to Yorkville under the Purchase Agreement more than 32,630,573 shares of Common Stock, which number of shares is equal to 19.99% of the shares of the Common Stock outstanding immediately prior to the execution of the Purchase Agreement (the “Exchange Cap”), unless (i) we obtain stockholder approval to issue shares of Common Stock in excess of the Exchange Cap in accordance with applicable Nasdaq rules, or (ii) the average price per share paid by Yorkville for all of the shares of Common Stock that we direct Yorkville to purchase from us pursuant to the Purchase Agreement, if any, equals or exceeds $3.03 per share (representing the lower of the official closing price of our Common Stock on Nasdaq on the trading day immediately preceding the date of the Purchase Agreement and the average official closing price of our Common Stock on Nasdaq for the five consecutive trading days ending on the trading day immediately preceding the date of the Purchase Agreement, as adjusted pursuant to applicable Nasdaq rules). Moreover, we may not issue or sell any shares of Common Stock to Yorkville under the Purchase Agreement which, when aggregated with all other shares of Common Stock then beneficially owned by Yorkville and its affiliates (as calculated pursuant to Section 13(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and Rule 13d-3 promulgated thereunder), would result in Yorkville beneficially owning more than 4.99% of the outstanding shares of Common Stock (the “Beneficial Ownership Limitation”).

 

The net proceeds under the Purchase Agreement to us will depend on the frequency and prices at which we sell shares of our stock to Yorkville. We expect that any proceeds received by us from such sales to Yorkville will be used for working capital and general corporate purposes.

 

Yorkville has agreed that it and its affiliates will not engage in any short sales of the Common Stock nor enter into any transaction that establishes a net short position in the Common Stock during the term of the Purchase Agreement.

 

The Purchase Agreement will automatically terminate on the earliest to occur of (i) the first day of the month next following the 36-month anniversary of the date of the Purchase Agreement or (ii) the date on which the Selling Securityholder shall have purchased from us under the Purchase Agreement shares of our Common Stock for an aggregate gross purchase price of $125,000,000. We have the right to terminate the Purchase Agreement at no cost or penalty upon five (5) trading days’ prior written notice to Yorkville, provided that there are no outstanding Advance Notices and all outstanding amounts owed to Yorkville are repaid. We and Yorkville may also agree to terminate the Purchase Agreement by mutual written consent. Neither we nor Yorkville may assign or transfer our respective rights and obligations under the Purchase Agreement, and no provision of the Purchase Agreement may be modified or waived by us or Yorkville other than by an instrument in writing signed by both parties.

 

As consideration for Yorkville’s commitment to purchase shares of Common Stock at our direction upon the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the Purchase Agreement, upon execution of the Purchase Agreement, we issued 18,582 shares of Common Stock to Yorkville.

 

The Purchase Agreement contains customary representations, warranties, conditions and indemnification obligations of the parties. The representations, warranties and covenants contained in such agreements were made only for purposes of such agreements and as of specific dates, were solely for the benefit of the parties to such agreements and may be subject to limitations agreed upon by the contracting parties.

 

We do not know what the purchase price for our Common Stock will be and therefore cannot be certain as to the number of shares we might issue to Yorkville under the Purchase Agreement. As of March 23, 2022, there were 163,234,491 shares of our Common Stock outstanding, of which 57,933,555 shares were held by non-affiliates. Although the Purchase Agreement provides that we may sell up to $125,000,000 of our Common Stock to the Selling Securityholder, only 16,160,214 shares of our Common Stock are being registered for resale by the Selling Securityholder under the registration statement that includes this prospectus, which represents (i) the 18,582 shares of our Common Stock (the “Commitment Shares”) that we issued to Yorkville on March 23, 2022 under the Purchase Agreement in consideration of its commitment to purchase shares of Common Stock at our election under the Purchase Agreement, and (ii) up to 16,141,632 shares of Common Stock that may be issued to Yorkville from time to time, if and when we elect to sell shares to Yorkville under the Purchase Agreement.

 

3

 

 

If and when we elect to issue and sell shares to Yorkville under the Purchase Agreement, we may need to register for resale under the Securities Act additional shares of our Common Stock in order to receive aggregate gross proceeds equal to the $125,000,000 available to us under the Purchase Agreement, depending on market prices for our Common Stock. If all of the 16,160,214 shares offered by Yorkville for resale under the registration statement that includes this prospectus were issued and outstanding as of the date hereof (without taking into account the 4.99% Beneficial Ownership Limitation or the 19.99% Exchange Cap limitation), such shares would represent approximately 9.0% of the total number of shares of our Common Stock outstanding and approximately 35% of the total number of outstanding shares held by non-affiliates, in each case as of March 23, 2022. If we elect to issue and sell more than the 16,160,214 shares offered under this prospectus to Yorkville, which we have the right, but not the obligation, to do, we must first register for resale under the Securities Act any such additional shares, which could cause substantial additional dilution to our stockholders. The number of shares ultimately offered for resale by Yorkville is dependent upon the number of shares we may elect to sell to Yorkville under the Purchase Agreement.

 

There are substantial risks to our stockholders as a result of the sale and issuance of Common Stock to Yorkville under the Purchase Agreement. These risks include the potential for substantial dilution and significant declines in our stock price. See the section entitled “Risk Factors.” Issuances of our Common Stock in this offering will not affect the rights or privileges of our existing stockholders, except that the economic and voting interests of each of our existing stockholders will be diluted as a result of any such issuance. Although the number of shares of Common Stock that our existing stockholders own will not decrease as a result of sales, if any, under the Purchase Agreement, the shares owned by our existing stockholders will represent a smaller percentage of our total outstanding shares after any such issuance to Yorkville.

 

For more detailed information regarding the Purchase Agreement, see the section entitled “Committed Equity Financing.”

 

Risks Associated with Our Business

 

Our ability to implement our business strategy is subject to numerous risks that you should be aware of before making an investment decision. These risks are described more fully in the section entitled “Risk Factors,” immediately following this prospectus summary. These risks include the following, among others:

 

Our limited operating history makes evaluating our business and future prospects difficult and may increase the risk of your investment.

 

Our Fleet-as-a-Service offering is novel in the industry and has yet to be tested in the long term. Any failure to commercialize our strategic plans could have a material adverse effect on our operating results and business, harm our reputation and could result in substantial liabilities that exceed our resources.

 

We may experience significant delays in the design, manufacturing and wide-spread deployment of our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs, which could harm our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

 

Our ability to develop and manufacture vehicles, powertrains and battery packs of sufficient quality and appeal to customers on schedule and on a large scale will require significant capital expenditures and is unproven and still evolving.

 

We have no experience to date in high volume manufacturing of our vehicle and battery packs, and we currently rely and expect to continue to rely on third-party contract manufacturing partners to manufacture our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs, and to supply critical components and systems, which expose us to a number of risks and uncertainties outside our control, including supply shortages due to macroeconomic conditions.

 

If we fail to successfully tool our manufacturing facilities or if our manufacturing facilities become inoperable, we will be unable to produce our vehicles and our business will be harmed.

 

We are or may be subject to risks associated with strategic alliances or acquisitions and may not be able to identify adequate strategic relationship opportunities, or form strategic relationships, in the future.

 

4

 

 

We derive a significant portion of our revenues from a small number of customers; if revenues derived from these customers decrease or the timing of such revenues fluctuates, our business and results of operations could be negatively affected.

 

We are dependent on our suppliers, some of which are limited source or single-source suppliers, and the inability of these suppliers, due to increased demand or other factors, to deliver necessary components and materials used in our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs at prices and volumes, performance and specifications acceptable to us, could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

 

Our business and prospects depend significantly on our ability to build the Xos brand. We may not succeed in continuing to establish, maintain and strengthen the Xos brand, and our brand and reputation could be harmed by negative publicity regarding Xos, our vehicles, powertrains or battery packs.

 

If we fail to manage our growth effectively, we may not be able to further design, develop, manufacture and market our vehicles, powertrains or battery packs successfully.

 

Our battery packs use lithium-ion battery cells, a class of batteries which have been observed to catch fire or vent smoke and flame.

 

Increases in costs, disruption of supply or shortage of materials, in particular for lithium-ion battery cells, semiconductors and other key components, have harmed and could continue to harm our business.

 

We and our contract manufacturing partners rely on complex machinery for the manufacture of our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs, which involves a significant degree of risk and uncertainty in terms of operational performance and costs.

 

We may face regulatory limitations on our ability to sell vehicles directly to consumers, which could materially and adversely affect our ability to sell our vehicles.

 

The performance characteristics of our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs may vary, including due to factors outside of our control, which could harm our ability to develop, market and deploy our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs.

 

Insufficient reserves to cover future warranty or part replacement needs or other vehicle, powertrain and battery pack repair requirements, including any potential software upgrades, could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

 

Future product recalls could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

 

We are highly dependent on the services of Dakota Semler and Giordano Sordoni, our co-founders, as well as our key personnel and senior management, and if we are unable to attract and retain key personnel and hire qualified management, technical and electric vehicle engineering personnel, our ability to compete could be materially and adversely affected.

 

The commercial vehicle market is highly competitive, and we may not be successful in competing in this industry.

 

Our growth is dependent upon the last-mile and return-to-base segment’s willingness to adopt electric vehicles.

 

We may face challenges providing charging solutions for our vehicles.

 

5

 

 

We are an early-stage company with a history of losses and expect to incur significant expenses and continuing losses for the foreseeable future.

 

We will require significant capital to develop and grow our business, and we may be unable to adequately control the costs associated with our operations.

 

We have yet to achieve positive operating cash flow and, given our projected funding needs, our ability to generate positive cash flow is uncertain.

 

Our financial results may vary significantly from period to period due to fluctuations in our product development cycle and operating costs, product demand and other factors.

 

Our business plans require a significant amount of capital. In addition, our future capital needs may require us to sell additional equity or debt securities that may dilute our stockholders or introduce covenants that may restrict our operations or our ability to pay dividends.

 

We have been, and may in the future be, adversely affected by health epidemics and pandemics, including the ongoing global COVID-19 pandemic, the duration and economic, governmental and social impact of which is difficult to predict, which may significantly harm our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

 

Corporate Information

 

NextGen was incorporated on July 29, 2020 as a Cayman Islands exempted company and incorporated for the purpose of effecting a merger, amalgamation, share exchange, asset acquisition, share purchase, reorganization or similar business combination with one or more businesses or entities. NextGen completed its initial public offering in October 2020. In August 2021, Merger Sub merged with and into Legacy Xos, whereupon the separate limited liability company existence of Merger Sub ceased and Legacy Xos became the surviving company and continued in existence as a subsidiary of NextGen. Prior to the Closing Date, NextGen changed its jurisdiction of incorporation from the Cayman Islands to the State of Delaware by deregistering as an exempted company in the Cayman Islands and domesticating and continuing as a corporation formed under the laws of the State of Delaware.

 

On the Closing Date, and in connection with the Closing, NextGen changed its name to Xos, Inc. Legacy Xos was deemed to be the accounting acquirer in the Business Combination based on an analysis of the criteria outlined in Accounting Standards Codification 805. While NextGen was the legal acquirer in the Business Combination, because Legacy Xos was deemed the accounting acquirer, the historical financial statements of Legacy Xos became the historical financial statements of the combined company, upon the consummation of the Business Combination.

 

Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company and a Smaller Reporting Company

 

We are an emerging growth company as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (the “JOBS Act”). We will remain an emerging growth company under the JOBS Act until the earliest of (a) the last day of our first fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of NextGen’s initial public offering, (b) the last date of our fiscal year in which we have total annual gross revenue of at least $1.07 billion, (c) the date on which we are deemed to be a “large accelerated filer” under the rules of the SEC with at least $700.0 million of outstanding securities held by non-affiliates or (d) the date on which we have issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt securities during the previous three years.

 

We are also a “smaller reporting company” as defined in the Exchange Act. We may continue to be a smaller reporting company even after we are no longer an emerging growth company. We may take advantage of certain of the scaled disclosures available to smaller reporting companies and will be able to take advantage of these scaled disclosures for so long as the market value of our voting and non-voting Common Stock held by non-affiliates is less than $250.0 million measured on the last business day of our second fiscal quarter, or our annual revenue is less than $100.0 million during the most recently completed fiscal year and the market value of our voting and non-voting Common Stock held by non-affiliates is less than $700.0 million measured on the last business day of our second fiscal quarter.

 

As a result, the information in this prospectus and that we provide to our investors in the future may be different than what you might receive from other public reporting companies.

 

6

 

 

THE OFFERING

 

Issuer

  Xos, Inc. (f/k/a NextGen Acquisition Corporation).
     
Issuance of Common Stock    
     
Shares of Common Stock Offered by the Selling Securityholder   16,160,214 shares of Common Stock, consisting of (i) 18,582 Commitment Shares; and (ii) up to 16,141,632 shares we may elect, in our discretion, to issue and sell to the Selling Securityholder under the Purchase Agreement from time to time.
     
Shares of Common Stock Outstanding   163,234,491 shares (as of March 23, 2022).
     
Shares of Common Stock Outstanding After Giving Effect to the Issuance of the Shares Registered Hereunder   179,413,288 shares (based on total shares outstanding as of March 23, 2022).
     
Use of Proceeds  

We will not receive any proceeds from the resale of shares of Common Stock included in this prospectus by the Selling Securityholder. However, we may receive up to $125,000,000 in aggregate gross proceeds under the Purchase Agreement from sales of Common Stock that we may elect to make to the Selling Securityholder pursuant to the Purchase Agreement, if any, from time to time in our discretion.

 

We expect to use the net proceeds that we receive from sales of our Common Stock to the Selling Securityholder, if any, under the Purchase Agreement for working capital and general corporate purposes. See the section titled “Use of Proceeds.”

     
Market for Common Stock   Our Common Stock is currently traded on Nasdaq under the symbol “XOS.”
     
Risk Factors   See the section entitled “Risk Factors” and other information included in this prospectus for a discussion of factors you should consider before investing in our securities.

 

The number of shares of Common Stock to be outstanding is based on 163,234,491 shares of Common Stock outstanding as of March 23, 2022 and excludes:

 

3,217,381 shares of Common Stock issuable upon the settlement of restricted stock units (“RSUs”) granted under the 2021 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2021 Plan”);

 

20,942,440 shares of Common Stock available for future issuance under the 2021 Plan;

 

1,834,681 shares of Common Stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding options granted under the 2018 Stock Option Plan (the “2018 Stock Plan”);

 

3,284,383 shares available for future issuance under our 2021 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (the “ESPP”);

 

270,001 shares issuable upon the exercise of outstanding private warrants to purchase Common Stock (the “Private Placement Warrants”), with an exercise price of $11.50 per share;

 

18,563,297 shares issuable upon the exercise of outstanding public warrants to purchase Common Stock, (the “Public Warrants,” together with the Private Placement Warrants the “Warrants”) with an exercise price of $11.50 per share; and

 

18,582 Commitment Shares issued to the Selling Securityholder upon signing the Purchase Agreement.

 

7

 

 

RISK FACTORS

 

Investing in our securities involves risks. Before you make a decision to buy our securities, in addition to the risks and uncertainties discussed above under “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements,” you should carefully consider the specific risks set forth herein. The occurrence of any of the events or developments described below, or of additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial, could materially and adversely affect our business, growth prospects financial condition, liquidity and results of operations. As a result, the market price of our securities could decline, and you could lose all or part of your investment. Additionally, the risks and uncertainties described in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement are not the only risks and uncertainties that we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently believe to be immaterial may become material and adversely affect our business.

 

Summary of Risks:

 

Our business is subject to a number of risks of which you should be aware before making a decision to invest in our Common Stock. These risks include, among others, the following:

 

It is not possible to predict the actual number of shares we will sell under the Purchase Agreement to the Selling Securityholder, or the actual gross proceeds resulting from those sales. Further, we may not have access to the full amount available under the Purchase Agreement with the Selling Securityholder.

 

The sale and issuance of our Common Stock to the Selling Securityholder will cause dilution to our existing stockholders, and the sale of the shares of Common Stock acquired by the Selling Securityholder, or the perception that such sales may occur, could cause the price of our Common Stock to fall.

 

Investors who buy shares of Common Stock at different times will likely pay different prices.

 

Our management team will have broad discretion over the use of the net proceeds from our sale of shares of Common Stock to the Selling Securityholder, if any, and you may not agree with how we use the proceeds and the proceeds may not be invested successfully.

 

Our limited operating history makes evaluating our business and future prospects difficult and may increase the risk of your investment.

 

Our Fleet-as-a-Service offering is novel in the industry and has yet to be tested in the long term. Any failure to commercialize our strategic plans could have a material adverse effect on our operating results and business, harm our reputation and could result in substantial liabilities that exceed our resources.

 

We may experience significant delays in the design, manufacturing and wide-spread deployment of our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs, which could harm our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

 

Our ability to develop and manufacture vehicles, powertrains and battery packs of sufficient quality and appeal to customers on schedule and on a large scale will require significant capital expenditures and is unproven and still evolving.

 

We have no experience to date in high volume manufacturing of our vehicle and battery packs, and we currently rely and expect to continue to rely on third-party contract manufacturing partners to manufacture our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs, and to supply critical components and systems, which expose us to a number of risks and uncertainties outside our control, including supply shortages due to macroeconomic conditions.

 

If we fail to successfully tool our manufacturing facilities or if our manufacturing facilities become inoperable, we will be unable to produce our vehicles and our business will be harmed.

 

8

 

 

We are or may be subject to risks associated with strategic alliances or acquisitions and may not be able to identify adequate strategic relationship opportunities, or form strategic relationships, in the future.

 

We derive a significant portion of our revenues from a small number of customers; if revenues derived from these customers decrease or the timing of such revenues fluctuates, our business and results of operations could be negatively affected.

 

We are dependent on our suppliers, some of which are limited source or single-source suppliers, and the inability of these suppliers, due to increased demand or other factors, to deliver necessary components and materials used in our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs at prices and volumes, performance and specifications acceptable to us, could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

 

Our business and prospects depend significantly on our ability to build the Xos brand. We may not succeed in continuing to establish, maintain and strengthen the Xos brand, and our brand and reputation could be harmed by negative publicity regarding Xos, our vehicles, powertrains or battery packs.

 

If we fail to manage our growth effectively, we may not be able to further design, develop, manufacture and market our vehicles, powertrains or battery packs successfully.

 

Our battery packs use lithium-ion battery cells, a class of batteries which have been observed to catch fire or vent smoke and flame.

 

Increases in costs, disruption of supply or shortage of materials, in particular for lithium-ion battery cells, semiconductors and other key components, have harmed and could continue to harm our business.

 

We and our contract manufacturing partners rely on complex machinery for the manufacture of our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs, which involves a significant degree of risk and uncertainty in terms of operational performance and costs.

 

We may face regulatory limitations on our ability to sell vehicles directly to consumers, which could materially and adversely affect our ability to sell our vehicles.

 

The performance characteristics of our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs may vary, including due to factors outside of our control, which could harm our ability to develop, market and deploy our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs.

 

Insufficient reserves to cover future warranty or part replacement needs or other vehicle, powertrain and battery pack repair requirements, including any potential software upgrades, could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

 

Future product recalls could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

 

We are highly dependent on the services of Dakota Semler and Giordano Sordoni, our co-founders, as well as our key personnel and senior management, and if we are unable to attract and retain key personnel and hire qualified management, technical and electric vehicle engineering personnel, our ability to compete could be materially and adversely affected.

 

The commercial vehicle market is highly competitive, and we may not be successful in competing in this industry.

 

Our growth is dependent upon the last-mile and return-to-base segment’s willingness to adopt electric vehicles.

 

We may face challenges providing charging solutions for our vehicles.

 

9

 

 

We are an early-stage company with a history of losses and expect to incur significant expenses and continuing losses for the foreseeable future.

 

We will require significant capital to develop and grow our business, and we may be unable to adequately control the costs associated with our operations.

 

We have yet to achieve positive operating cash flow and, given our projected funding needs, our ability to generate positive cash flow is uncertain.

 

Our financial results may vary significantly from period to period due to fluctuations in our product development cycle and operating costs, product demand and other factors.

 

Our business plans require a significant amount of capital. In addition, our future capital needs may require us to sell additional equity or debt securities that may dilute our stockholders or introduce covenants that may restrict our operations or our ability to pay dividends.

 

We have been, and may in the future be, adversely affected by health epidemics and pandemics, including the ongoing global COVID-19 pandemic, the duration and economic, governmental and social impact of which is difficult to predict, which may significantly harm our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

 

Risks Related to this Offering

 

It is not possible to predict the actual number of shares we will sell under the Purchase Agreement to the Selling Securityholder, or the actual gross proceeds resulting from those sales. Further, we may not have access to the full amount available under the Purchase Agreement with the Selling Securityholder.

 

On March 23, 2022, we entered into the Purchase Agreement with the Selling Securityholder, pursuant to which the Selling Securityholder has committed to purchase up to $125,000,000 of our Common Stock, subject to certain limitations and conditions set forth in the Purchase Agreement. The shares of our Common Stock that may be issued under the Purchase Agreement may be sold by us to the Selling Securityholder at our discretion from time to time.

 

We generally have the right to control the timing and amount of any sales of our shares of Common Stock to the Selling Securityholder under the Purchase Agreement. Sales of our Common Stock, if any, to the Selling Securityholder under the Purchase Agreement will depend upon market conditions and other factors to be determined by us. We may ultimately decide to sell to the Selling Securityholder all, some or none of the shares of our Common Stock that may be available for us to sell to the Selling Securityholder pursuant to the Purchase Agreement.

 

Because the purchase price per share to be paid by the Selling Securityholder for the shares of Common Stock that we may elect to sell to the Selling Securityholder under the Purchase Agreement, if any, will fluctuate based on the market prices of our Common Stock prior to each Advance made pursuant to the Purchase Agreement, if any, it is not possible for us to predict, as of the date of this prospectus and prior to any such sales, the number of shares of Common Stock that we will sell to the Selling Securityholder under the Purchase Agreement, the purchase price per share that the Selling Securityholder will pay for shares purchased from us under the Purchase Agreement, or the aggregate gross proceeds that we will receive from those purchases by the Selling Securityholder under the Purchase Agreement, if any.

 

Moreover, although the Purchase Agreement provides that we may sell up to an aggregate of $125,000,000 of our Common Stock to the Selling Securityholder, only 16,160,214 shares of our Common Stock (including 18,582 Commitment Shares issued to the Selling Securityholder upon signing the Purchase Agreement) are being registered for resale under the registration statement that includes this prospectus. If we elect to sell to the Selling Securityholder all of the 16,160,214 shares of Common Stock being registered for resale under this prospectus, depending on the market price of our Common Stock prior to each advance made pursuant to the Purchase Agreement, the actual gross proceeds from the sale of all such shares may be substantially less than the $125,000,000 available to us under the Purchase Agreement, which could materially adversely affect our liquidity.

 

10

 

 

If it becomes necessary for us to issue and sell to the Selling Securityholder under the Purchase Agreement more than the 16,160,214 shares being registered for resale under this prospectus in order to receive aggregate gross proceeds equal to $125,000,000 under the Purchase Agreement, we must file with the SEC one or more additional registration statements to register under the Securities Act the resale by the Selling Securityholder of any such additional shares of our Common Stock we wish to sell from time to time under the Purchase Agreement, which the SEC must declare effective. Additionally, we would need to obtain stockholder approval to issue shares of Common Stock in excess of the Exchange Cap under the Purchase Agreement in accordance with applicable Nasdaq rules, unless the average per share purchase price paid by the Selling Securityholder for all shares of Common Stock sold under the Purchase Agreement equals or exceeds $3.03, in which case, under applicable Nasdaq rules, the Exchange Cap limitation will not apply to issuances and sales of Common Stock under the Purchase Agreement. Any issuance and sale by us under the Purchase Agreement of shares of Common Stock in addition to the 16,160,214 shares of Common Stock being registered for resale by the Selling Securityholder under the registration statement that includes this prospectus could cause additional dilution to our stockholders.

 

We are not required or permitted to issue any shares of Common Stock under the Purchase Agreement if such issuance would breach our obligations under the rules or regulations of Nasdaq. In addition, the Selling Securityholder will not be required to purchase any shares of our Common Stock if such sale would result in the Selling Securityholder’s beneficial ownership exceeding 4.99% of the then issued and outstanding Common Stock. Our inability to access a part or all of the amount available under the Purchase Agreement, in the absence of any other financing sources, could have a material adverse effect on our business.

 

The sale and issuance of our Common Stock to the Selling Securityholder will cause dilution to our existing stockholders, and the sale of the shares of Common Stock acquired by the Selling Securityholder, or the perception that such sales may occur, could cause the price of our Common Stock to fall.

 

The purchase price for the shares that we may sell to the Selling Securityholder under the Purchase Agreement will fluctuate based on the price of our Common Stock. Depending on a number of factors, including market liquidity, sales of such shares may cause the trading price of our Common Stock to fall.

 

If and when we do sell shares to the Selling Securityholder, the Selling Securityholder may resell all, some, or none of those shares at its discretion, subject to the terms of the Purchase Agreement. Therefore, sales to the Selling Securityholder by us could result in substantial dilution to the interests of other holders of our Common Stock. Additionally, the sale of a substantial number of shares of our Common Stock to the Selling Securityholder, or the anticipation of such sales, could make it more difficult for us to sell equity or equity-related securities in the future at a desirable time and price.

 

Investors who buy shares of Common Stock at different times will likely pay different prices.

 

Pursuant to the Purchase Agreement, we control the timing and amount of any sales of Common Stock to the Selling Securityholder. If and when we do elect to sell shares of our Common Stock to the Selling Securityholder pursuant to the Purchase Agreement, the Selling Securityholder may resell all, some or none of such shares in its discretion and at different prices, subject to the terms of the Purchase Agreement. As a result, investors who purchase shares from the Selling Securityholder in this offering at different times will likely pay different prices for those shares, and so may experience different levels of dilution and in some cases substantial dilution and different outcomes in their investment results. Investors may experience a decline in the value of the shares they purchase from the Selling Securityholder in this offering as a result of future sales made by us to the Selling Securityholder at prices lower than the prices such investors paid for their shares in this offering. In addition, if we sell a substantial number of shares to the Selling Securityholder under the Purchase Agreement, or if investors expect that we will do so, the actual sales of shares or the mere existence of our arrangement with the Selling Securityholder may make it more difficult for us to sell equity or equity-related securities in the future at a desirable time and price.

 

Our management team will have broad discretion over the use of the net proceeds from our sale of shares of Common Stock to the Selling Securityholder, if any, and you may not agree with how we use the proceeds and the proceeds may not be invested successfully.

 

Our management team will have broad discretion as to the use of the net proceeds from our sale of shares of Common Stock to the Selling Securityholder, if any, and we could use such proceeds for purposes other than those contemplated at the time of commencement of this offering. Accordingly, you will be relying on the judgment of our management team with regard to the use of those net proceeds, and you will not have the opportunity, as part of your investment decision, to assess whether the proceeds are being used appropriately. It is possible that, pending their use, we may invest those net proceeds in a way that does not yield a favorable, or any, return for us. The failure of our management team to use such funds effectively could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flows.

 

11

 

 

Risks Related to our Business and Industry

 

Our limited operating history makes evaluating our business and future prospects difficult and may increase the risk of your investment.

 

You must consider the risks and difficulties we face as an early-stage company with a limited operating history. If we do not successfully address these risks, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results may be materially and adversely affected. Xos Fleet, Inc. (“Legacy Xos”) was originally incorporated as a California corporation in October 2015 and converted into a Delaware corporation in December 2020. As further described in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Business Combination and Public Company Costs,” the Business Combination (as defined therein) was completed in August 2021. We have a very limited operating history on which investors can base an evaluation of our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results. We intend to derive our revenue from the sale of our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs and our Fleet-as-a-Service offering. There are no assurances that we will be able to secure future business with customers.

 

Our Fleet-as-a-Service offering is novel in the industry and has yet to be tested in the long term. Any failure to commercialize our strategic plans could have a material adverse effect on our operating results and business, harm our reputation and could result in substantial liabilities that exceed our resources.

 

Our Fleet-as-a-Service offering is novel in the industry and subjects us to substantial risk if significant expenditures are required before receipt of substantial revenue. To date, only a limited number of customers have utilized our Fleet-as-a-Service offering. Demand for our Fleet-as-a-Service offering may not ultimately meet expectations and/or Fleet-as-a-Service products and services in development may never become commercially available, either of which may have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

 

You should be aware of the difficulties normally encountered by new services and products, many of which are beyond our control, including substantial risks and expenses in the course of establishing or entering new markets, organizing operations and undertaking marketing activities. Our current financial projections assume pricing, subscription volume and retention of subscribers which may not reflect future actuals. We may also encounter unforeseen expenses, difficulties or delays in connection with developing the Fleet-as-a-Service offering, including, but not limited to, those related to providing Energy Services and related infrastructure, providing financing options, increasing service and maintenance personnel and supplying insurance and other risk products. The likelihood of our success with our Fleet-as-a-Service offering and our vehicle, powertrain and battery pack sales must be considered in light of these risks and expenses, potential complications or delays and the competitive environment in which we operate. Certain of our Fleet-as-a-Service products and services in development that are not yet commercially available may never become commercially available which may have a material impact on our ability to achieve our financial projections. In addition, the novelty of our Fleet-as-a-Service offering means that it has yet to be tested in the long-term and we may encounter risks and difficulties including, but not limited to, providing Energy Services and related infrastructure, providing financing options, increasing service and maintenance personnel, supplying insurance and other risk products, among others, and may encounter unforeseen expenses, difficulties or delays in connection with developing the Fleet-as-a-Service offering, Therefore, there can be no assurances that our business plan will prove successful. We may not be able to generate significant revenue or operate profitably, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

 

12

 

 

We may experience significant delays in the design, manufacturing and wide-spread deployment of our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs, which could harm our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

 

Widespread deliveries of our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs to customers is not expected to begin until the first half of 2022 and may occur later or not at all. There are often delays in the design, development, manufacturing and release of new vehicles, powertrains and battery packs, and to the extent we delay the launch or manufacture of our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs, our growth prospects could be adversely affected. For instance, we have experienced delays in our battery production activities, which have resulted in a manufacturing backlog in our vehicle assembly line. We will rely on our third-party contract manufacturing partners to build our vehicles and powertrains at scale, and if they are not able to manufacture sufficient vehicles and powertrains that meet our specifications, we may need to partner with other contract manufacturers or expand our manufacturing capabilities, which may cause us to incur additional costs and delay deployment of our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs. Furthermore, we rely on third-party suppliers for the provision and development of many of the key components and materials used in our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs, and to the extent we experience any delays, we may need to seek alternative suppliers. If we experience delays by our third-party outsourcing partners or suppliers, we could experience delays in delivering on our timelines.

 

Any delay in the design, development, manufacturing and release of our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs could materially damage our brand, business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

 

Our ability to develop and manufacture vehicles, powertrains and battery packs of sufficient quality and appeal to customers on schedule and on a large scale will require significant capital expenditures and is unproven and still evolving.

 

Our future business model depends in large part on our ability to execute our plans to design, develop, manufacture, market, deploy and service our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs at scale, which will require significant capital expenditures. Our flex manufacturing approach, in which we leverage existing local facilities and labor pools through strategic partnerships with third-party manufacturers, is intended to be capital- and time-efficient and is designed to allow for rapid scale and flexibility at a substantial cost reduction compared to the construction of traditional automotive manufacturing facilities. However, our flex manufacturing approach is relatively novel, has not been tested on a large scale and will still require significant expense and time.

 

We also retain third-party vendors and service providers to engineer, design, develop, test and manufacture some of the critical systems and components of our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs. While this approach allows us to draw upon such third parties’ industry knowledge and expertise, there can be no assurance such systems and components will be successfully developed to our specifications or delivered in a timely manner to meet our program timing requirements.

 

Our continued development and manufacture of our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs are and will be subject to a number of risks, including with respect to:

 

our ability to acquire and install the equipment necessary to manufacture the desired quantity of our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs within the specified design tolerances;

 

long- and short-term durability of our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs to withstand day-to-day wear and tear;

 

compliance with environmental, workplace safety and similar regulations;

 

engineering, designing, testing and securing delivery of critical systems and components on acceptable terms and in a timely manner;

 

delays in delivery of final systems and components by our suppliers;

 

shifts in demand for our current products and future derivatives built off the X-Platform;

 

the compatibility of the X-Platform with future vehicle designs;

 

our ability to attract, recruit, hire and train skilled employees;

 

quality controls, particularly as we plan to expand our manufacturing capabilities;

 

13

 

 

delays or disruptions in our supply chain, like those we have recently experienced due to broader macroeconomic trends;

 

other delays and cost overruns; and

 

our ability to secure additional funding, if necessary.

 

If we are unable to realize the expected benefits of our flex manufacturing approach, or if we are otherwise unable to develop and manufacture vehicles, powertrains and battery packs of sufficient quality and appeal to customers on schedule and on a large scale, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results may be materially and adversely affected.

 

We have no experience to date in high volume manufacturing of our vehicles and battery packs, and currently rely and expect to continue to rely on third-party contract manufacturing partners to manufacture our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs and to supply critical components and systems, which exposes us to a number of risks and uncertainties outside our control.

 

We do not know whether we or our current or future third-party contract manufacturing partners will be able to develop efficient, automated, low-cost manufacturing capabilities and processes that will enable us to meet the quality, price, engineering, design and manufacturing standards, as well as the manufacturing volumes, required to successfully mass market our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs. Even if we and our third-party contract manufacturing partners are successful in developing high volume manufacturing capability and processes, we do not know whether we will be able to do so in a manner that avoids significant delays and cost overruns, including as a result of factors beyond our control such as problems with suppliers and vendors or force majeure events, meets our product commercialization and manufacturing schedules and satisfies the requirements of customers and potential customers. If our third-party contract manufacturing partners were to experience delays, disruptions, capacity constraints or quality control problems in manufacturing operations, product shipments could be delayed or rejected and our customers could consequently elect to change product demand. These disruptions could negatively impact our revenues, competitive position and reputation. In addition, our third-party contract manufacturing partners may rely on certain local tax incentives that may be subject to change or elimination in the future, which could result in additional costs and delays in manufacturing if a new manufacturing site must be obtained. Further, if we are unable to successfully manage our relationship with our third-party contract manufacturing partners, the quality and availability of our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs may decline. Our third-party contract manufacturing partners could, under some circumstances, decline to accept new purchase orders from or otherwise reduce their business with us. If our third-party contract manufacturing partners stopped manufacturing our vehicles, powertrains or battery packs for any reason or reduced their manufacturing capacity, we may be unable to replace the lost manufacturing capacity on a timely and cost-effective basis, which would adversely impact our operations and ability to meet delivery timelines.

 

Our reliance on third-party contract manufacturing partners exposes us to a number of additional risks that are outside our control, including:

 

unexpected increases in manufacturing costs;

 

interruptions in shipments if a third-party contract manufacturing partner is unable to complete production in a timely manner;

 

reduced control over delivery schedules;

 

reduced control over manufacturing levels and our ability to meet minimum volume commitments to our customers;

 

reduced control over manufacturing yield; and

 

reduced control over manufacturing capacity.

 

14

 

 

The manufacturing facilities of our third-party contract manufacturing partners and the equipment used to manufacture our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs would be costly to replace and could require substantial lead time to replace and qualify for use. The manufacturing facilities of our third-party contract manufacturing partners may be harmed or rendered inoperable by natural or man-made disasters, including, war, military conflicts earthquakes, flooding, fire and power outages, or by health epidemics, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, which may render it difficult or impossible for us to manufacture our vehicles, powertrains or battery packs for some period of time. The inability to manufacture our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs or the backlog that could develop if the manufacturing facilities of our third-party contract manufacturing partners are inoperable for even a short period of time may result in the loss of customers or harm our reputation.

 

Although we promote ethical business practices and our operations personnel periodically visit and monitor the operations of our third-party contract manufacturing partners, we do not control our third-party manufacturing partners or their labor and other legal compliance practices, including their environmental, health and safety practices. If our current or future third-party contract manufacturing partners violate U.S. federal, state or local foreign laws or regulations, we may be subjected to extra duties, significant monetary penalties, adverse publicity, the seizure and forfeiture of products that we are attempting to import or the loss of our import privileges. These factors could render the conduct of our business in a particular jurisdiction undesirable or impractical and have a negative impact on our operating results.

 

If we fail to successfully tool our manufacturing facilities or if our manufacturing facilities become inoperable, we will be unable to produce our vehicles and our business will be harmed.

 

Tooling our Flex manufacturing facilities for production of our vehicles and our future expansion plans are complicated and present significant challenges. If any of our Flex manufacturing facilities are not tooled in conformity with our requirements, repair or remediation may be required and could require us to take vehicle production offline, delay plans for increasing production capacity, or construct alternate facilities, which could materially limit our manufacturing capacity, delay planned increases in manufacturing volumes, delay the start of production of new product lines, or adversely affect our ability to timely sell and deliver our electric vehicles to customers. Any repair or remediation efforts could also require us to bear substantial additional costs, including both the direct costs of such activities and potentially costly litigation or other legal proceedings related to any identified defect, and there can be no assurance that our insurance policies or other recoveries would be sufficient to cover all or any of such costs. Any of the foregoing consequences could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition and could cause our results of operations to differ materially from our current expectations.

 

We are or may be subject to risks associated with strategic alliances or acquisitions and may not be able to identify adequate strategic relationship opportunities, or form strategic relationships, in the future.

 

We have entered into non-binding memoranda of understanding and letters of intent (“MOUs”) with certain key manufacturers, suppliers and development partners to form strategic alliances with such third parties, and may in the future enter into additional strategic alliances or joint ventures or minority equity investments, in each case with various third parties for the manufacture of our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs and for our Fleet-as-a-Service offering. There is no guarantee that any of our MOUs will lead to any binding agreements or lasting or successful business relationships with such key suppliers and development partners. If these strategic alliances are established, they may subject us to several risks, including risks associated with sharing proprietary information, non-performance by the third-party and increased expenses in establishing new strategic alliances, any of which may materially and adversely affect our business. We may have limited ability to monitor or control the actions of these third parties and, to the extent any of these strategic third parties suffer negative publicity or harm to their reputation from events relating to our business, we may suffer negative publicity or harm to our reputation by virtue of our association with any such third-party.

 

Strategic business relationships are expected to be an important factor in the growth and success of our business. However, there are no assurances that we will be able to continue to identify or secure suitable business relationship opportunities in the future and our competitors may capitalize on such opportunities before we do. Moreover, identifying such opportunities could require substantial management time and resources, and negotiating and financing relationships involves significant costs and uncertainties. If we are unable to successfully source and execute on strategic relationship opportunities in the future, our overall growth could be impaired, and our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results could be materially and adversely affected.

 

15

 

 

When appropriate opportunities arise, we may acquire additional assets, products, technologies or businesses that are complementary to our existing business. In addition to possible stockholder approval, we may need approvals and licenses from relevant government authorities for the acquisitions and to comply with any applicable laws and regulations. Obtaining the required approvals and licenses could result in increased delay and costs, and failure to do so may disrupt our business strategy. Furthermore, acquisitions and the subsequent integration of new assets and businesses into our own require significant attention from our management and could result in a diversion of resources from our existing business, which in turn could have an adverse effect on our operations. Acquired assets or businesses may not generate the financial results we expect. Acquisitions could result in the use of substantial amounts of cash, potentially dilutive issuances of equity securities, the occurrence of significant goodwill impairment charges, amortization expenses for other intangible assets and exposure to potential unknown liabilities of the acquired business. Moreover, the costs of identifying and consummating acquisitions may be significant.

 

We derive a significant portion of our revenues from a small number of customers; if revenues derived from these customers decrease or the timing of such revenues fluctuates, our business and results of operations could be negatively affected.

 

We currently derive a significant portion of our revenues from a small number of customers, and this trend may continue for the foreseeable future. During the year ended December 31, 2021, three customers accounted for 10%, 38%, and 46%, respectively of our revenues. The loss of any one of our significant customers, a reduction in the purchases of our products by such customers or the cancellation of significant purchases by any of these customers would reduce our revenues and could harm our ability to achieve or sustain expected results of operations, and a delay of significant purchases, even if only temporary, would reduce our revenues in the period of the delay. Any such reduction in revenues may also impact our cash resources available for other purposes, such as research and development.

 

We are dependent on our suppliers, some of which are limited source or single-source suppliers, and the inability of these suppliers, due to increased demand or other factors, to deliver necessary components and materials used in our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs at prices and volumes, performance and specifications acceptable to us, could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

 

We rely on third-party suppliers for the provision and development of many of the key components and materials used in our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs. While we plan to obtain components and materials from multiple sources whenever possible, some of the components and materials used in our products will be purchased by us from a single or limited number of sources. Our third-party suppliers may not meet their product specifications and performance characteristics, which would impact our ability to achieve our product specifications and performance characteristics as well. Additionally, our third-party suppliers may not obtain the required certifications for their products or provide warranties that are necessary for our vehicles, powertrains, battery packs or services.

 

If we are unable to obtain components and materials from our suppliers or if our suppliers decide to create or supply competing products, our business could be adversely affected. We have less negotiating leverage with suppliers than larger and more established automobile manufacturers and may not be able to obtain favorable pricing and other terms for the foreseeable future. While we believe that we can establish alternate supply relationships and can obtain or engineer replacement components for our limited source components, we may be unable to do so in the short term, or at all, at prices, quantities or quality levels that are favorable to us. In addition, if these suppliers experience financial difficulties, cease operations, or otherwise face business disruptions, we may be required to provide substantial financial support to ensure supply continuity or take other measures to ensure components and materials remain available. Any disruption could affect our ability to deliver vehicles, powertrains and battery packs and could increase our costs, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

 

Our business and prospects depend significantly on our ability to build the Xos brand. We may not succeed in continuing to establish, maintain and strengthen the Xos brand, and our brand and reputation could be harmed by negative publicity regarding Xos, our vehicles, powertrains or battery packs.

 

Our business and prospects are heavily dependent on our ability to develop, maintain and strengthen the Xos brand. If we do not continue to establish, maintain and strengthen our brand, we may lose the opportunity to build a critical mass of customers, and our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results may be materially and adversely affected.

 

16

 

 

 

Promoting and positioning our brand will likely depend significantly on our ability to provide high-quality vehicles, powertrains and battery packs and engage with our customers as intended, and we have limited experience in these areas. In addition, our ability to develop, maintain and strengthen the Xos brand will depend heavily on the success of our customer development and branding efforts. Our target customers may be reluctant to acquire a vehicles, powertrains or battery packs from a new and unproven company such as Xos. In addition, our novel technology and design may not align with target customer preferences. If we do not develop and maintain a strong brand, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results will be materially and adversely impacted.

 

In addition, if negative incidents relating to our vehicles, powertrains or battery packs occur or are perceived to have occurred, whether or not such incidents are our fault, we could be subject to adverse publicity. In particular, given the popularity of social media, any negative publicity, whether true or not, could quickly proliferate and harm consumer perceptions and confidence in the Xos brand. Furthermore, there is the risk of potential adverse publicity related to our manufacturing or other partners whether or not such publicity is related to their collaboration with us. Our ability to successfully position our brand could also be adversely affected by perceptions about the quality of our competitors’ vehicles, powertrains or battery packs.

 

In addition, from time to time, our vehicles, powertrains or battery packs may be evaluated and reviewed by third parties. Any negative reviews or reviews which compare us unfavorably to competitors could adversely affect consumer perception about our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs.

 

If we fail to manage our growth effectively, we may not be able to further design, develop, manufacture and market our vehicles, powertrains or battery packs successfully.

 

Any failure to manage our growth effectively could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition. We intend to expand our operations significantly. We expect our future expansion to include:

 

expanding the management team;
  
hiring and training new personnel;
  
leveraging consultants to assist with company growth and development;
  
expanding our product offering across vehicles, powertrains, battery packs and Fleet-as-a-Service;
  
controlling expenses and investments in anticipation of expanded operations;
  
establishing or expanding design, research and development, manufacturing, sales and service facilities;
  
implementing and enhancing administrative infrastructure, systems and processes; and
  
expanding into new markets.

 

As of December 31, 2021, we had 289 employees (all of whom were full-time), 35 contractors and 5 interns. We intend to continue to hire a significant number of additional personnel across a variety of functions, including, but not limited to, sales, marketing, servicing, product, engineering, supply chain, manufacturing and operations. However, we may have difficulties hiring qualified personnel at times, such as during the current challenging labor market. Because our vehicles and powertrains are based on a different technology platform than traditional internal combustion engines, individuals with sufficient training and experience in alternative fuel technologies may not be available to hire, and as a result, we may need to expend significant time and expense training newly hired employees. Competition for individuals with experience designing, manufacturing and servicing vehicles and powertrains and their software is intense, and we may not be able to attract, integrate, train, motivate or retain sufficient highly qualified personnel. The failure to attract, integrate, train, motivate and retain these additional employees could seriously harm our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

 

17

 

 

Our battery packs use lithium-ion battery cells, a class of batteries which have been observed to catch fire or vent smoke and flame.

 

Our battery packs use lithium-ion battery cells. On rare occasions, lithium-ion battery cells can rapidly release the energy they contain by venting smoke and flames in a manner that can ignite nearby materials as well as other lithium-ion battery cells. This has occurred in our testing as we refine our battery design. While we have taken measures to enhance the safety of our battery designs, a future field or testing failure of our battery packs could occur, which could subject us to litigation, inquiries, product recalls or redesign efforts, all of which would be time-consuming and expensive. Also, negative public perceptions regarding the suitability of lithium-ion battery cells for automotive applications or any future incident involving lithium-ion battery cells such as a vehicle or other fire, even if such incident does not involve our battery packs, could negatively affect our brand and harm our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

 

In addition, a significant number of lithium-ion battery cells are expected to be stored at our facilities and the facilities of our manufacturing partners and suppliers. Any mishandling of battery cells may cause disruption to the operation of such facilities. A safety issue or fire related to the battery cells could disrupt operations or cause manufacturing delays, and could lead to adverse publicity, litigation or a safety recall. Moreover, any failure of a competitor’s electric vehicle or energy storage product may cause indirect adverse publicity for us and our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs. Such adverse publicity could negatively affect our brand and harm our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

 

Increases in costs, disruption of supply or shortage of materials, in particular for lithium-ion battery cells, semiconductors and other key components, have harmed and could continue to harm our business.

 

We and our suppliers have experienced and may continue to experience increases in the cost of, or a sustained interruption in the supply or shortage of, components and materials. Any such cost increase, supply interruption or shortage could materially and negatively impact our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results. We and our suppliers use various materials in their businesses and products, including for example lithium-ion battery cells and steel, and the prices for such components and materials fluctuate. Additionally, the available supply of such components and materials are and may continue to be unstable, depending on market conditions and global demand, including as a result of increased production of electric vehicles, powertrains and battery packs by us and our competitors, and could adversely affect our business and operating results. For instance, we are exposed to multiple risks relating to lithium-ion battery cells. These risks include:

 

an increase in the cost, or decrease in the available supply, of materials used in our battery packs;
  
disruption in the supply of battery cells due to quality issues or recalls by battery cell manufacturers; and
  
fluctuations in the value of any foreign currencies in which battery cell and related raw material purchases are or may be denominated against the U.S. dollar.

 

Our business is dependent on the continued supply of lithium-ion battery cells for the battery packs used in our vehicles and powertrains. Any disruption in the supply of battery cells from our suppliers could disrupt production of our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs. We heavily rely on international shipping to transport the components and materials used in our battery packs from our suppliers. The current delays due to congestion in west coast ports have caused, and may continue to cause, us to use more expensive air freight or other more costly methods to receive components and materials. Furthermore, fluctuations or shortages in petroleum and other economic conditions have caused, and may continue to cause, us to experience significant increases in freight charges and material costs.

 

Additionally, we and other vehicle manufacturers that utilize integrated circuits have been negatively impacted by the current shortage of semiconductors, which could last into 2023 or beyond. A combination of factors, including increased demand for consumer electronics, automotive manufacturing shutdowns due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the rapid recovery of demand for vehicles and long lead times for wafer production, are contributing to the shortage of semiconductors. A shortage of semiconductors or other key components or materials could cause a significant disruption to our production schedule. If we are unable to obtain sufficient semiconductors or other key components or materials that have experienced or may experience shortages, or if we cannot find other methods to mitigate the impact of any such shortage, then our financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

 

18

 

 

Substantial increases in the prices for components or materials utilized in the manufacture of our vehicles, powertrains or battery packs, such as those charged by suppliers of battery cells, semiconductors or other key components or materials, would increase our operating costs, and could reduce our margins if the increased costs cannot be recouped through increased vehicle, powertrain or battery pack sales or Fleet-as-a-Service revenue. Any attempts to increase vehicle, powertrain, battery pack or Fleet-as-a-Service prices in response to increased component or material costs could result in cancellations of orders and reservations and materially and adversely affect our brand, image, business, prospects and operating results.

 

We and our contract manufacturing partners rely on complex machinery for the manufacture of our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs, which involves a significant degree of risk and uncertainty in terms of operational performance and costs.

 

We and our third-party contract manufacturing partners rely on complex machinery for the manufacture and assembly of our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs, which involves a significant degree of uncertainty and risk in terms of operational performance and costs. Our facilities and the facilities of our third-party contract manufacturing partners and suppliers contain large-scale machinery consisting of many components. These components may suffer unexpected malfunctions from time to time and may depend on repairs and spare parts to resume operations, which may not be available when needed. Unexpected malfunctions of these components may significantly affect the intended operational efficiency.

 

Operational performance and costs can be difficult to predict and are often influenced by factors outside of our control, such as, but not limited to, scarcity of natural resources, environmental hazards and remediation, costs associated with decommissioning of machines, labor disputes and strikes, difficulty or delays in obtaining permits, damage to or defects in electronic systems, industrial accidents, fire, seismic activity and natural disasters. Should operational risks materialize, it may result in the personal injury to or death of workers, the loss of manufacturing equipment, damage to manufacturing facilities, monetary losses, delays and unanticipated fluctuations in production, environmental damage, administrative fines, increased insurance costs and potential legal liabilities, all which could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition or operating results.

 

Furthermore, manufacturing technology may evolve rapidly, and we may decide to update our manufacturing processes more quickly than expected. Moreover, as we scale the commercial production of our vehicles, our experience may cause us to discontinue the use of already installed equipment in favor of different or additional equipment. The useful life of any equipment that would be retired early as a result would be shortened, causing the depreciation on such equipment to be accelerated, and our results of operations could be negatively impacted.

 

We may face regulatory limitations on our ability to sell vehicles directly to consumers, which could materially and adversely affect our ability to sell our vehicles.

 

Our business plan includes the direct sale of vehicles to consumers. We have limited experience distributing directly to consumers, and we expect that the building of a national and global in-house sales and marketing function will be expensive and time consuming. The laws governing licensing of dealers and sales of motor vehicles vary from state to state. Most states require a dealer license and/or manufacturers license to sell new motor vehicles within the state, and many states prohibit manufacturers or their affiliates from becoming licensed dealers and directly selling new motor vehicles to consumers from within that state. In addition, most states require that we have a physical dealership location in the state before we can be licensed as a dealer. We are currently licensed as a motor vehicle dealer in one state and anticipate that we can become a licensed dealer in additional states.

 

The application of these state laws to our operations continues to be difficult to predict. Laws in some states have limited our ability to obtain dealer licenses from state motor vehicle regulators and may continue to do so. We may face legal challenges to this distribution model. For instance, in states where direct sales are not permitted, dealers and their lobbying organizations may complain to the government or regulatory agencies that we are acting in the capacity of a dealer without a license. In some states, regulators may restrict or prohibit us from directly providing warranty repair service, or from contracting with third parties who are not licensed dealers to provide warranty repair service. Even if regulators decide to permit us to sell vehicles, such decisions may be challenged by dealer associations and others as to whether such decisions comply with applicable state motor vehicle dealer laws. Further, even in jurisdictions where we believe applicable laws and regulations do not currently prohibit our direct sales model, legislatures may impose additional limitations.

 

19

 

 

Our distribution model also includes the sale of vehicles pursuant to agreements with dealers. Xos products sold through dealers may have significantly lower unit margins than those that we sell directly to customers. Additionally, such dealer relationships may limit our ability to enter into similar agreements with other dealers in certain markets or effect sales in certain markets other than through the dealer assigned to such market. Our ability to terminate any dealership agreement may be limited due to state and local laws and regulations.

 

Because the laws vary from state to state, our distribution model must be carefully established, and our sales and service processes must be continually monitored for compliance with the various state requirements, which change from time to time. Regulatory compliance and likely challenges to the distribution model may add to the cost of our business.

 

The performance characteristics of our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs may vary, including due to factors outside of our control, which could harm our ability to develop, market and deploy our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs.

 

The performance characteristics of our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs, including expected range, may vary, including due to factors outside of our control. Our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs are subject to continuous design and development updates, and there are no assurances that they will be able to meet their projected performance characteristics. External factors may also impact the performance characteristics of our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs, including, but not limited to, driver behavior, speed, terrain, hardware efficiency, payload, vehicle or powertrain conditions and weather conditions. These external factors, as well as any operation of our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs other than as intended, may affect performance of our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs, including range and longevity.

 

In addition, our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs may contain defects in design and manufacturing that may cause them not to perform as expected or may require repair. We currently have a limited frame of reference by which to evaluate the performance of our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs upon which our business prospects depend. There can be no assurance that we will be able to detect and fix any defects in our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs. We may experience recalls in the future, which could adversely affect our brand and could adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results. Our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs may not perform consistent with customers’ expectations or on par with those of our competitors.

 

If the average performance of our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs, including the usable life of a battery pack, is below expectations, or if there are product defects or any other failure of our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs to perform as expected, our reputation could be harmed, which could result in adverse publicity, lost revenue, delivery delays, product recalls, negative publicity, product liability claims and significant warranty and other expenses and could have a material adverse impact on our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

 

Insufficient reserves to cover future warranty or part replacement needs or other vehicle, powertrain and battery pack repair requirements, including any potential software upgrades, could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

 

We will need to maintain reserves to cover part replacement and other vehicle, powertrain and battery pack repair needs, including any potential software upgrades or warranty claims. If our reserves are inadequate to cover future maintenance requirements on our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results could be materially and adversely affected. We may become subject to significant and unexpected expenses, including claims from our customers. There can be no assurances that then-existing reserves will be sufficient to cover all expenses.

 

20

 

 

Future product recalls could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

 

Any product recall in the future may result in negative publicity, damage our brand and materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results. In the future, we may, voluntarily or involuntarily, initiate a recall if any of our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs, or components thereof, prove to be defective or noncompliant with applicable motor vehicle safety standards or other requirements. If a large number of vehicles, powertrains, battery packs or components are the subject of a recall or if needed replacement parts are not in adequate supply, we may not be able to deploy recalled vehicles, powertrains or battery packs for a significant period of time. These types of disruptions could jeopardize our ability to fulfill existing contractual commitments or satisfy demand for our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs and could also result in the loss of business to our competitors. Such recalls also involve significant expense and diversion of management attention and other resources, and could adversely affect our brand image, as well as our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results. Additionally, problems and defects experienced by other electric vehicles from other manufacturers could by association have a negative impact on perception and customer demand for our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs.

 

We may become subject to product liability claims, including possible class action and derivative lawsuits, which could harm our financial condition and liquidity if we are not able to successfully defend or insure against such claims.

 

Product liability claims, even those without merit or those that do not involve our vehicles, powertrains or battery packs, could harm our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results. The automobile industry in particular experiences significant product liability claims, and we face inherent risk of exposure to claims in the event our vehicles, powertrains or battery packs do not perform or are claimed to not have performed as expected. As is true for other electric vehicle suppliers, we expect in the future that our vehicles will be involved in crashes resulting in death or personal injury. Additionally, product liability claims that affect our competitors or suppliers may also cause indirect adverse publicity for us and our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs.

 

A successful product liability claim against us could require us to pay a substantial monetary award. Moreover, a product liability claim against us or our competitors could generate substantial negative publicity about our vehicles, powertrains, battery packs and business and could have a material adverse effect on our brand, business, prospects, financial condition and operating results. We may self-insure against the risk of product liability claims, meaning that any product liability claims will likely have to be paid from company funds, not by insurance.

 

If we are unable to establish and maintain confidence in our long-term business prospects among customers and analysts and within our industry, then our financial condition, operating results, business prospects and access to capital may be materially and adversely affected.

 

Customers may be less likely to purchase our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs if they do not believe that our business will succeed or that our service and support and other operations will continue in the long term. Similarly, suppliers and other third parties may be less likely to invest time and resources in developing business relationships with us if they are not convinced that our business will succeed. Accordingly, in order to build and maintain our business, we must maintain confidence among customers, suppliers, analysts, ratings agencies and other parties in our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs, long-term financial viability and business prospects. Maintaining such confidence may be particularly complicated by certain factors, including those that are largely outside of our control, such as our limited operating history, customer unfamiliarity with our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs, any delays in scaling manufacturing, delivery and service operations to meet demand, competition, uncertainty regarding the future of electric vehicles (including our vehicles), our manufacturing and sales performance compared with market expectations and any negative publicity with respect to us, our competitors or the industry.

 

21

 

 

We have limited experience servicing our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs and our integrated software. If we or our partners are unable to adequately service our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results may be materially and adversely affected.

 

Servicing electric vehicles is different than servicing vehicles with internal combustion engines and requires specialized skills, including high voltage training and servicing techniques. We have partnered with a third party to perform certain servicing services on our vehicles, but our current or future third-party vehicle servicers may initially have limited experience in servicing vehicles like ours. There can be no assurance that our service arrangements will adequately address the service requirements of our customers to their satisfaction, or that we and our servicing partners will have sufficient resources, experience or inventory to meet these service requirements in a timely manner as the volume of our vehicle deliveries increases. In addition, if we are unable to roll out and establish a widespread service network that complies with applicable laws, customer satisfaction could be adversely affected, which in turn could materially and adversely affect our reputation and thus our sales, results of operations and prospects.

 

Our customers will also depend on our customer support team to resolve technical and operational issues relating to the integrated software underlying our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs. As we continue to grow, additional pressure may be placed on our customer support team or partners, and we may be unable to respond quickly enough to accommodate short-term increases in customer demand for technical support. We also may be unable to modify the future scope and delivery of our technical support to compete with changes in the technical support provided by our competitors. Increased customer demand for support, without corresponding revenue, could increase costs and negatively affect our operating results. If we are unable establish a reputation for providing high-quality support or successfully address the service requirements of our customers, our brand may be harmed and we may be subject to claims from our customers, including loss of revenue or damages, and our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results may be materially and adversely affected.

 

We are highly dependent on the services of Dakota Semler and Giordano Sordoni, our co-founders, as well as our key personnel and senior management, and if we are unable to attract and retain key personnel and hire qualified management, technical and electric vehicle engineering personnel, our ability to compete could be materially and adversely affected.

 

Our success depends, in part, on our ability to retain our key personnel. We are highly dependent on the services of Dakota Semler and Giordano Sordoni, our co-founders. Messrs. Semler and Sordoni are the source of many of the ideas, the strategy and the execution driving the Company. If Mr. Semler or Mr. Sordoni were to discontinue their services to us due to death, disability or any other reason, we would be significantly disadvantaged. Additionally, the unexpected loss of or failure to retain one or more of our key personnel and senior management members could adversely affect our business.

 

Our success also depends, in part, on our continuing ability to identify, hire, attract, train and develop other highly qualified personnel. Experienced and highly skilled personnel are in high demand and competition for such personnel can be intense, and our ability to hire, attract and retain them depends in part on our ability to provide competitive compensation. We may not be able to attract, assimilate, develop or retain qualified personnel in the future, and a failure to do so could adversely affect our business, including the execution of our business strategy. Any failure by our management team and our employees to perform as expected may have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

 

The commercial vehicle market is highly competitive, and we may not be successful in competing in this industry.

 

We face intense competition in bringing our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs to market. We face competition from many different sources in the commercial vehicle market for medium- and heavy-duty last-mile and return-to-base segments, including existing major commercial vehicle OEMs, such as Daimler, Ford, General Motors, Navistar, Paccar, and Volvo, as well as new companies that are developing alternative fuel and electric commercial vehicles. Many of our current and potential competitors, including Nikola, Arrival, Rivian, Workhorse, BYD Motors, The Lion Electric Company, and Proterra., may have significantly greater financial, technical, manufacturing, marketing and other resources than we do and may be able to devote greater resources to the design, development, manufacturing, distribution, promotion, sale and support of their products, including their vehicles. Additionally, our competitors may also have greater name recognition, longer operating histories, larger sales forces, broader customer and industry relationships and greater resources than we do. These competitors also compete with us in recruiting and retaining qualified research and development, sales, marketing and management personnel, as well as in acquiring technologies complementary to, or necessary for, our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs. Future mergers and acquisitions activity may result in even more resources being concentrated in our competitors. In addition, we also compete with manufacturers of vehicles with internal combustion engines. There are no assurances that customers will choose our vehicles over those of our competitors, or over internal combustion engine vehicles. We expect additional competitors to enter the industry as well.

 

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We expect competition in our industry to intensify from our existing and future competitors as consumer demand for electric and alternative fuel vehicles increases and regulatory scrutiny on the motor vehicle industry intensifies.

 

Our growth is dependent upon the last-mile and return-to-base segment’s willingness to adopt electric vehicles.

 

Our growth is highly dependent upon the adoption of electric vehicles by last-mile delivery fleets and companies. If the market for last-mile and return-to-base electric vehicles does not develop at the rate or in the manner or to the extent that we expect, or if critical assumptions we have made regarding the efficiency of our total cost of ownership are incorrect or incomplete, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results could be materially and adversely affected. The rapidly evolving market for last-mile and return-to-base electric vehicles is new and untested and is characterized by rapidly changing technologies, price competition, numerous competitors, evolving government regulation and industry standards and uncertain customer demands and behaviors.

 

Asa result, the market for our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs could be affected by numerous factors, such as:
  
perceptions about electric vehicle, powertrain and battery pack features, quality, safety, performance, reliability and cost;
  
perceptions about the limited range over which electric vehicles may be driven on a single charge;
  
government regulations and economic incentives;
  
the availability of tax and other government incentives to purchase and operate alternative fuel, hybrid and electric vehicles or future laws requiring increased use of such vehicles;
  
the decline of vehicle efficiency resulting from deterioration over time in the ability of a battery pack to hold a charge;
  
the availability of service and associated costs for alternative fuel, hybrid or electric vehicles;
  
competition, including from other types of alternative fuel, plug-in hybrid, electric and high fuel-economy internal combustion engine vehicles;
  
changes or improvements in the fuel economy of internal combustion engines, competitors’ vehicles and vehicle controls or competitors’ electrified systems;
  
fuel and energy prices, including volatility in the cost of fossil fuels, alternative fuels and electricity;
  
the timing of adoption and implementation of fully autonomous vehicles;
  
access to charging facilities and related infrastructure costs and standardization of electric vehicle charging systems;
  
electric grid capacity and reliability; and
  
macroeconomic factors.

 

We may face challenges providing charging solutions for our vehicles.

 

Demand for our vehicles will depend in part on the availability of charging infrastructure. Most vehicles in our targeted segments operate on last-mile routes that generally return to base hubs on a daily basis, and fleet operators may choose to purchase fewer Xos vehicles, or none at all, if they are unable to install sufficient dedicated charging infrastructure. Our efforts to install, configure and implement dedicated charging solutions may be affected by numerous factors, such as;

 

the cost, availability, standardization and quality of commercial electric vehicle charging systems;

 

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the availability of government incentives and our ability to navigate legal requirements associated with installing electric vehicle charging systems;
  
our ability to hire skilled employees, or train new employees, that are qualified to install and/or service electric vehicle charging systems; and
  
electric grid capacity and reliability.

 

In addition, while the prevalence of public charging stations and third-party charging networks generally has been increasing, charging station locations are significantly less widespread than gas stations. Moreover, the charging bays at such stations or networks may (i) have limited availability, (ii) be unable to accommodate commercial electrical vehicles such as our products, and (iii) feature charging times that are unacceptable to our customers. Any failure of public charging stations or third-party charging networks to meet customer expectations or needs, including quality of experience, could impact the demand for electric vehicles, including ours.

 

We may not be able to successfully engage target customers or convert early trial deployments with truck fleets into meaningful orders or additional deployments in the future.

 

Our success, and our ability to increase revenue and operate profitably, depends in part on our ability to identify target customers and to convert early trial deployments with truck fleets into meaningful orders or additional deployments in the future. Our vehicles have been delivered to certain customers on an early trial deployment basis, where such customers have the ability to evaluate whether these trucks meet such customers’ performance and other requirements before committing to meaningful orders or additional deployments in the future. If we are unable to meet customers’ performance requirements or industry specifications, identify target customers, convert early trial deployments in truck fleets into meaningful orders or obtain additional deployments in the future, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results may be materially and adversely affected.

 

Our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs rely on software and hardware that is highly technical, and if these systems contain errors, bugs or vulnerabilities, or if we are unsuccessful in addressing or mitigating technical limitations in our systems, our business could be adversely affected.

 

Our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs rely on software and hardware that is highly technical and complex and will require modification and updates over the life of the vehicle, powertrain or battery pack. In addition, our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs depend on the ability of such software and hardware to store, retrieve, process and manage immense amounts of data. Our software and hardware may contain errors, bugs, design defects or vulnerabilities, and our systems are subject to certain technical limitations that may compromise our ability to meet our objectives. Some errors, bugs or vulnerabilities inherently may be difficult to detect and may only be discovered after the code has been released for external or internal use. Although we attempt to remedy any issues we observe in our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs as effectively and rapidly as possible, such efforts may not be timely, may hamper production or may not be to the satisfaction of our customers. Additionally, if we are able to address any software issues but our over-the-air update procedures fail, such software updates may have to be installed locally, which could hamper our efforts to remedy issues in a timely fashion. If we are unable to prevent or effectively remedy errors, bugs, vulnerabilities or defects in our software and hardware, we may suffer damage to our reputation, loss of customers, loss of revenue or liability for damages, any of which could adversely affect our business and financial results.

 

The last mile and return to base segment and our technology are rapidly evolving and may be subject to unforeseen changes which could adversely affect the demand for our vehicles.

 

The last mile and return to base segment is rapidly evolving and we may be unable to keep up with changes in electric vehicle technology or alternatives to electricity as a fuel source and, as a result, our competitiveness may suffer. Developments in technology or alternative technologies, such as advanced diesel, ethanol, hybrids, fuel cells, or compressed natural gas, or improvements in the fuel economy of the internal combustion engine, may materially and adversely affect our business and prospects in ways we do not currently anticipate. As technologies evolve, particularly battery cell technology, we plan to release refreshed versions of our vehicles, which may also negatively impact the adoption of our existing products. Any failure by us to successfully react to changes in existing technologies could materially harm our competitive position and growth prospects.

 

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The demand for electric vehicles depends, in part, on the continuation of current trends resulting from dependence on fossil fuels. Extended periods of low gasoline or other petroleum-based fuel prices could adversely affect demand for our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs, which could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

 

Gasoline and other petroleum-based fuel prices have been extremely volatile, and we believe this continuing volatility will persist. Lower gasoline or other petroleum-based fuel prices over extended periods of time may lower the perception in government and the private sector that cheaper, more readily available energy alternatives should be developed and produced. If gasoline or other petroleum-based fuel prices remain at deflated levels for extended periods of time, the demand for electric vehicles may decrease, which would have an adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

 

If the cost of gasoline and other petroleum-based fuel decreased significantly, the outlook for the long-term supply of oil to the United States improved, regulations or economic incentives related to fuel efficiency and alternative forms of energy were eliminated or reduced, or if there is a change in the perception that the burning of fossil fuels negatively impacts the environment, the demand for electric vehicles could be reduced, which could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

 

Risks Related to Operating as a Public Company

 

We have incurred and will continue to incur increased costs as a result of operating as a public company, and our management has devoted and will continue to devote substantial time and resources to new compliance initiatives.

 

We have incurred and will continue to incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company, and these expenses may increase even more after we are no longer an emerging growth company, as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act. As a public company, we are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act and the rules adopted, and to be adopted, by the SEC and Nasdaq. Our management and other personnel have devoted a substantial amount of time complying with these rules and regulations, and our legal and financial compliance costs have increased as a result. If we do not satisfy our public company obligations, or if our compliance efforts are more time-consuming and costly than expected, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results may be materially and adversely affected.

 

Our management has limited experience in operating a public company.

 

Our executive officers have limited experience in the management of a publicly-traded company that is subject to significant regulatory oversight and reporting obligations under federal securities laws. Their limited experience in dealing with the increasingly complex laws pertaining to public companies could be a significant disadvantage in that an increasing amount of their time may be devoted to these activities which would result in less time being devoted to the management and growth of the Company. The final development and implementation of the standards and controls necessary for us to achieve the level of accounting standards required of a public company in the United States may require costs greater than expected. We may be required to further expand our employee base and hire additional employees to support our operations as a public company which may increase our operating costs in future periods.

 

If we fail to establish and maintain proper and effective internal control over financial reporting, as a public company our ability to produce accurate and timely financial statements could be impaired, investors or analysts may lose confidence in our financial reporting, the trading price of our Common Stock may decline and we could face regulatory investigations or actions.

 

We are required to comply with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act beginning with the annual report for our fiscal year ending December 31, 2022, which will require management to certify financial and other information in our quarterly and annual reports and provide an annual management report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. When we lose our status as an “emerging growth company” and become an “accelerated filer” or a “large accelerated filer,” an attestation of the independent registered public accounting firm will also be required. The rules governing the standards that must be met for management to assess internal control over financial reporting are complex and require significant documentation, testing and possible remediation.

 

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To comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the requirements of being a reporting company under the Exchange Act and any complex accounting rules in the future, we may need to, among other things, upgrade our information technology systems; implement additional financial and management controls, reporting systems and procedures; and hire additional accounting and finance staff. If we are unable to hire the additional accounting and finance staff necessary to comply with these requirements, we may need to retain additional outside consultants, which may result in significant additional expenses.

 

Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with GAAP. Our management is likewise required, on a quarterly basis, to evaluate the effectiveness of our internal controls and to disclose any changes and material weaknesses identified through such evaluation of those internal controls.

 

A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.

 

We cannot assure you that there will not be additional material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting now or in the future. Any failure to maintain internal control over financial reporting could severely inhibit our ability to accurately report our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows. If we are unable to conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, or if our independent registered public accounting firm determines that we have a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, the market price of our Common Stock could significantly decline, and we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by Nasdaq, the SEC or other authorities. Failure to remedy any material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting, or to implement or maintain other effective control systems required of public companies, could also restrict our future access to the capital markets.

 

Risks Related to our Financial Condition

 

We are an early-stage company with a history of losses and expect to incur significant expenses and continuing losses for the foreseeable future.

 

We incurred an operating loss of $53.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. We believe that we will continue to incur operating and net losses each quarter until at least the time we begin wide-scale deliveries of our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs and realize increased adoption of our Fleet-as-a-Service products. If we are unable to scale to wide-scale deliveries and realize increased adoption of our Fleet-as-a-Service products, we expect to continue to incur operating and net losses.

 

Even if we can successfully develop our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs and attract additional customers, there can be no assurance that we will be financially successful. Our potential profitability is dependent upon the successful development and acceptance of our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs, which may not occur.

 

We expect to continue to incur losses in future periods as we:

 

continue to design, develop, manufacture and market our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs;
  
continue to utilize our third-party partners for supply and manufacturing;
  
expand our manufacturing capabilities, including costs associated with contracting the assembly of our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs;
  
build up inventories of parts and components for our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs;
  
manufacture an inventory of our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs;
  
expand our design, development, installation and servicing capabilities;
  

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further develop our proprietary battery and chassis technology;
  
increases our sales and marketing activities and develop our distribution infrastructure; and
  
increases our general and administrative functions to support our growing operations and to operate as a public company.

 

Because we will incur the costs and expenses from these efforts before we receive any incremental revenues with respect thereto, our losses in future periods will be significant. In addition, we may find that these efforts are more expensive than we currently anticipate or that these efforts may not result in revenues, which would further increase our losses.

 

We have entered and may continue to enter into agreements and non-binding purchase orders, letters of intent and memorandums of understanding or similar agreements for sales of our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs, which are cancellable at the option of our customers.

 

We have entered and may continue enter into agreements, purchase orders, letters of intent and memorandums of understanding or similar agreements for the sale of our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs that include various cancellation rights in favor of the customer. For example, we have entered into binding distribution and purchase agreements for the purchase of vehicles; however, they are subject to the further entry into a definitive agreement with final pricing, warranty coverage and other terms. These purchase obligations may also be cancelled by the customer with six months’ written notice. As a result, we cannot assure that we will be able to enter into a definitive agreement or that our customers will not exercise their cancellation rights. In addition, we have entered and may continue to enter into purchase orders, letters of intent and memorandums of understanding or similar agreements that are not binding on our customer and may also be subject to modification and cancellation provisions. Any of these adverse actions related to these agreements, purchase orders, letters of intent, memorandums of understanding or any future customer contracts could harm our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

 

We will require significant capital to develop and grow our business, and we may be unable to adequately control the costs associated with our operations.

 

We will require significant capital to develop and grow our business, including developing and manufacturing our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs, establishing or expanding design, research and development, manufacturing, sales and service facilities and building our brand. We have incurred and expect to continue incurring significant expenses which will impact our profitability, including research and development expenses (including related to developing and commercializing our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs), raw material procurement costs, sales and distribution expenses as we build our brand and market our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs, and general and administrative expenses as we scale our operations, identify and commit resources to investigate new areas of demand and incur costs as a public company. Our ability to become profitable in the future will not only depend on our ability to complete the design and development of our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs to meet projected performance metrics, identify and investigate new areas of demand and successfully market our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs, but also our ability to sell or lease our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs at prices needed to achieve our expected margins and control our costs. If we are unable to efficiently design, develop, manufacture, market, deploy, distribute and service our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs, our margins, profitability and prospects may be materially and adversely affected.

 

We have yet to achieve positive operating cash flow and, given our projected funding needs, our ability to generate positive cash flow is uncertain.

 

We had negative cash flow from operating activities of $88.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. Our business also will at times require significant amounts of working capital to support our expected future growth and expansion of products. An inability to generate positive cash flow for the near term may adversely affect our ability to raise needed capital for our business on reasonable terms, diminish supplier or customer willingness to enter into transactions with us, and have other adverse effects that may decrease our long-term viability. There can be no assurance that we will achieve positive cash flow in the near future or at all.

 

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We may not be able to accurately plan our production, which may result in carrying excess & obsolete raw material inventory.

 

We generally make decisions on our production level and timing, procurement, facility requirements, personnel needs and other resources requirements based on estimates made in light of certain production and sales forecasts, our past dealings with such customers, market conditions and other relevant factors. Our customers’ final purchase orders may not be consistent with our estimates. If the final purchase orders substantially differ from our estimates, we may have excess raw material inventory or material shortages. Excess inventory could result in unprofitable sales or write-offs as our products are susceptible to obsolescence and price declines. Expediting additional material to make up for any shortages within a short time frame could result in unprofitable sales or cause us to adjust delivery dates. In either case, our results of operation would fluctuate from period to period.

 

Our financial results may vary significantly from period to period due to fluctuations in our product development cycle and operating costs, product demand and other factors.

 

We expect our period-to-period financial results to vary based on our operating costs and product demand, which we anticipate will fluctuate as the pace at which we continue to design, develop and manufacture new vehicles, powertrains and battery packs, increase manufacturing capacity and establish or expand design, research and development, manufacturing, sales and service facilities varies. Additionally, our revenues from period to period may fluctuate as we identify and investigate areas of demand, adjust volumes and add new product derivatives based on market demand and margin opportunities, develop and introduce new vehicles, powertrains and battery packs or introduce existing vehicles, powertrains and battery packs to new markets. As a result of these factors, we believe that quarter-to-quarter comparisons of our financial results, especially in the short term, are not necessarily meaningful and that these comparisons cannot be relied upon as indicators of future performance. Moreover, our financial results may not meet expectations of equity research analysts, ratings agencies or investors, who may be focused primarily on quarterly financial results, which could cause the trading price of our Common Stock to fall substantially, either suddenly or over time.

 

Our business plans require a significant amount of capital. In addition, our future capital needs may require us to sell additional equity or debt securities that may dilute our stockholders or introduce covenants that may restrict our operations or our ability to pay dividends.

 

We have incurred, and expect to continue incurring, significant expenses as we expand our business, and that our level of expenses will be significantly affected by customer demand for our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs and Fleet-as-a-Service offering. We expect that we will have sufficient capital to fund our currently planned operations until we generate positive free cash flow contingent on our ability to execute on key projected capital strategy initiatives, such as the cash flow from advance payments from customers for the Fleet-as-a-Service products generating recurring revenue. The fact that we have a limited operating history means we have limited historical data on the demand for our vehicles, powertrains, battery packs and services. As a result, our future capital requirements are uncertain and actual capital requirements may differ from those we currently anticipate. We may need to seek equity or debt financing to finance a portion of our expenses. Such financing might not be available to us in a timely manner or on terms that are acceptable, or at all.

 

Our ability to obtain the necessary financing to carry out our business plan is subject to a number of factors, including general market conditions and investor acceptance of our business model. These factors may make the timing, amount, terms and conditions of such financing unattractive or unavailable to us. If we are unable to raise sufficient capital, we may have to significantly reduce our spending, delay or cancel our planned activities or substantially change our corporate structure. We may not be able to obtain any funding, and we may not have sufficient resources to conduct our business as projected, both of which could mean that we would be forced to curtail or discontinue our operations.

 

In addition, our future capital needs and other business reasons could cause us to sell additional equity or debt securities or obtain a credit facility. The sale of additional equity or equity-linked securities could dilute our stockholders. The incurrence of indebtedness would result in increased debt service obligations and could result in operating and financing covenants that may restrict our operations or our ability to pay dividends to our stockholders.

 

If we cannot raise additional capital in a timely manner and on acceptable terms, our operations and prospects could be negatively affected.

 

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Our ability to use net operating loss carryforwards and other tax attributes may be limited in connection with the Business Combination or other ownership changes.

 

We have incurred losses during our history and do not expect to become profitable soon and may never achieve profitability. To the extent that we continue to generate taxable losses, unused losses will carry forward to offset future taxable income, if any, until such unused losses expire, if at all. As of December 31, 2021, we have federal and state income tax net operating loss carryforwards of $130.9 million. This is comprised of approximately $71.1 million of federal net operating loss carryovers, and approximately $59.8 million of state net operating loss carryovers. The federal net operating loss has an indefinite carryforward period, and the state net operating loss carryovers may expire between 2036 and 2041.

 

Under the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, (the “Tax Act”), as modified by the Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security Act, (the “CARES Act”), U.S. federal net operating loss carryforwards generated in taxable periods beginning after December 31, 2017 may be carried forward indefinitely, but the deductibility of such net operating loss carryforwards in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2020, is limited to 80% of taxable income. It is uncertain if and to what extent various states will conform to the Tax Act or the CARES Act.

 

In addition, our net operating loss carryforwards are subject to review and possible adjustment by the IRS and state tax authorities. Under Sections 382 and 383 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), these federal net operating loss carryforwards and other tax attributes may become subject to an annual limitation in the event of certain cumulative changes in our ownership. An “ownership change” pursuant to Section 382 of the Code generally occurs if one or more stockholders or groups of stockholders who own at least 5% of a company’s stock increase their ownership by more than 50 percentage points over their lowest ownership percentage within a rolling three-year period. The ability of us to utilize net operating loss carryforwards and other tax attributes to offset future taxable income or tax liabilities may be limited as a result of ownership changes, including potential changes in connection with the Business Combination or other transactions. Similar rules may apply under state tax laws. If we earn taxable income, such limitations could result in increased future income tax liability to us and our future cash flows could be adversely affected. We have recorded a full valuation allowance related to our net operating loss carryforwards and other deferred tax assets due to the uncertainty of the ultimate realization of the future benefits of those assets.

 

Legal and Regulatory Risks

 

The unavailability, reduction or elimination of government and economic incentives could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

 

Any reduction, elimination or discriminatory application of government subsidies and economic incentives due to policy changes, the reduced push for such subsidies and incentives due to the perceived success of the electric vehicle industry or other reasons may result in the diminished competitiveness of alternative fuel and electric vehicles (including our products). While certain tax credits and other incentives for alternative energy production, alternative fuel vehicles and electric vehicles have been available in the past, there is no guarantee these programs will be available in the future. If current tax incentives are not available in the future, our financial position could be materially and adversely affected.

 

We, our outsourcing partners and our suppliers are subject to substantial regulation and unfavorable changes to, or failure by us, our outsourcing partners or our suppliers to comply with, these regulations could substantially harm our business and operating results.

 

We and our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs, and motor vehicles in general, as well as our third-party outsourcing partners and our suppliers, are or will be subject to substantial regulation under foreign, federal, state and local laws. We continue to evaluate requirements for licenses, approvals, certificates and authorizations necessary to manufacture, deploy or service our products in the jurisdictions in which we plan to operate and intend to take such actions necessary to comply. We may experience difficulties in obtaining or complying with various licenses, approvals, certifications and other governmental authorizations necessary to manufacture, deploy or service our vehicles in any of these jurisdictions.

 

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If we, our third-party outsourcing partners or our suppliers are unable to obtain or comply with any of the licenses, approvals, certifications or other authorizations necessary to carry out our operations in the jurisdictions in which we currently operate, or those jurisdictions in which we plan to operate, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results could be materially and adversely affected. We have incurred, and expect to continue to incur, significant costs in complying with these regulations. Laws related to the electric and alternative fuel vehicle industry are evolving and we face risks associated with changes to these laws, including, but not limited to:

 

increased support for other alternative fuel systems, which could have an impact on the acceptance of our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs; and
  
increased sensitivity by regulators to the needs of established automobile manufacturers with large employment bases, high fixed costs and business models based on the internal combustion engine, which could lead them to pass regulations that could reduce the compliance costs of such established manufacturers or mitigate the effects of government efforts to promote alternative fuel and electric vehicles.

 

To the extent the laws change, our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs may not comply with applicable foreign, federal, state or local laws, which would have an adverse effect on our business. Compliance with changing regulations could be burdensome, time-consuming and expensive. To the extent compliance with new laws is cost-prohibitive, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected.

 

Future changes to regulatory requirements may have a negative impact on our business.

 

To the extent the laws change, new laws are introduced, or if we introduce new products in the future, some or all of our products may not comply with applicable foreign, federal, state or local laws. Further, certain industry standards currently regulate electrical and electronics equipment. Although standards for electric vehicles are not yet generally available or accepted as industry standards, our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs may become subject to such standards in the future. Compliance with these standards could be burdensome, time-consuming, and expensive. There can be no assurance that we will be able to maintain our profitability by offsetting any increased compliance costs.

 

We may face litigation and other risks as a result of the material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting.

 

Following the issuance of the SEC statement entitled “Staff Statement on Accounting and Reporting Considerations for Warrants issued by Special Purpose Acquisition Companies (“SPACs”) on April 12, 2021, after consultation with NextGen’s independent registered public accounting firm, NextGen’s management and NextGen’s audit committee concluded that it was appropriate to restate NextGen’s previously issued audited financial statements as of December 31, 2020 and for the period from July 29, 2020 (inception) through December 31, 2020 (the “Restatement”). As part of the Restatement, NextGen identified a material weakness in its internal control over financial reporting.

 

As a result of such material weakness, the Restatement, the change in accounting for the warrants, and other matters raised or that may in the future be raised by the SEC, we face potential for litigation or other disputes which may include, among others, claims involving the federal and state securities laws, contractual claims or other claims arising from the Restatement and material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting and the preparation of our financial statements. As of the date of this filing, we are not aware of any such litigation or dispute. However, we can provide no assurance that such litigation or dispute will not arise in the future. Any such litigation or dispute, whether successful or not, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and reputation.

 

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We are subject to cybersecurity risks to our operational systems, security systems, infrastructure, integrated software in our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs, customer data, and personal data processed by us or third-party vendors or suppliers and any material failure, weakness, or interruption, cyber event, incident or breach of security could prevent us from effectively operating our business.

 

We are at risk for interruptions, outages and breaches of our: (a) operational systems, including business, financial, accounting, product development, data processing or production processes, owned by us or our third-party vendors or suppliers; (b) facility security systems, owned by us or our third-party vendors or suppliers; (c) transmission control modules or other in-product technology, owned by us or our third-party vendors or suppliers; (d) the integrated software in our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs; and (e) customer data and personal data that we processes or our third-party vendors or suppliers process on our behalf. Such incidents could: materially disrupt our operational systems; result in loss of intellectual property, trade secrets or other proprietary or sensitive information; compromise certain information of customers, employees, suppliers, or others; jeopardize the security of our facilities; divert management’s attention; and affect the performance of in-product technology and the integrated software in our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs.

 

We plan to include in-vehicle services and functionality that utilize data connectivity to monitor performance and timely capture opportunities to enhance on-the-road performance and for safety and cost-saving preventative maintenance. The availability and effectiveness of our services depend on the continued operation of information technology and communications systems. Our systems and those of our third-party vendors and suppliers are vulnerable to damage or interruption from, among others, physical theft; fire; terrorist attacks; natural disasters; power loss; war or military conflict; telecommunications failures; viruses; denial or degradation of service attacks; malicious third parties’ acts (including those of nation-state supported actors); ransomware; social engineering schemes; insider attacks; error, theft or misuse; or other attempts to harm the relevant systems. We intend to use our in-vehicle services and functionality to log information about each vehicle’s use in order to aid us in diagnostics and servicing. Our customers may object to the collection and use of this data, which may increase our vehicle, powertrain and battery pack maintenance costs and harm our business prospects.

 

Moreover, there are inherent risks associated with developing, improving, expanding and updating our current systems, such as the disruption of our data management, procurement, production execution, finance, supply chain and sales and service processes. These risks may affect our ability to manage our data and inventory, procure parts or supplies or manufacture, deploy, deliver and service our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs, adequately protect our intellectual property or achieve and maintain compliance with, or realize available benefits under, applicable laws, regulations and contracts.

 

We cannot be sure that these systems upon which we rely, including those of our third-party vendors or suppliers, will be effectively implemented, maintained or expanded as planned. If these systems are not successfully implemented, maintained or expanded as planned, our operations may be disrupted, our ability to accurately and timely report our financial results could be impaired, and deficiencies may arise in our internal control over financial reporting, which may impact our ability to certify our financial results. Additionally, our proprietary information or intellectual property could be compromised or misappropriated, and our reputation may be adversely affected. If these systems do not operate as we expect them to, we may be required to expend significant resources to make corrections or find alternative sources for performing these functions.

 

We depend on digital technologies, including information systems, infrastructure and cloud applications and services, including those of third parties with which we may deal. Attacks on, or security breaches in, our systems or infrastructure, or the systems or infrastructure of third parties or the cloud, could lead to corruption or misappropriation of our assets, proprietary information, personal data or confidential data, and we may not be sufficiently protected against such occurrences. We may not have enough resources to adequately protect against, or to investigate and remediate any vulnerability to, cyber incidents. It is possible that any of these occurrences, or a combination of them, could have adverse consequences on our business and lead to financial loss.

 

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If the security of the personal, confidential or proprietary information that we (or our service providers or vendors) collect, store or process is compromised or is otherwise accessed or acquired without authorization, our reputation may be harmed and we may be exposed to liability and loss of business, which could materially and adversely affect our financial performance and results of operations or prospects.

 

We collect, store, transmit and otherwise process data from vehicles, customers, employees and others as part of our business and operations, which may include personal, confidential or proprietary information. We also work with partners and third-party service providers or vendors that collect, store and process such data on our behalf and in connection with our vehicles. There can be no assurance that any security measures that we or our third-party service providers or vendors have implemented will be effective against current or future threats to such data. In addition, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, many employees have worked, and may continue to work, remotely, which may pose additional data security risks. If a compromise of data were to occur, we may become liable under our contracts with other parties and under applicable law for damages and incur penalties and other costs to respond to, investigate and remedy such an incident. Our systems, networks and physical facilities could be breached, or data could otherwise be compromised. Third parties may also exploit vulnerabilities in, or obtain unauthorized access to, platforms, systems, networks and/or physical facilities utilized by our service providers and vendors.

 

Our vehicles contain complex information technology systems and built-in data connectivity to accept and install periodic remote updates to improve or update functionality. We have designed, implemented and tested security measures intended to prevent unauthorized access to our information technology networks, vehicles and related systems. However, unauthorized actors may attempt to gain access to modify, alter and use such networks, vehicles and systems to gain control of or to change our vehicles’ functionality, user interface and performance characteristics, or to gain access to data stored in or generated by the vehicle. A significant breach of our third-party service providers’ or vendors’ or our own network security and systems could have serious negative consequences for our business and future prospects, including possible fines, penalties and damages, reduced customer demand for our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs, regulatory investigations, litigation and harm to our reputation and brand. The risk of breach of our security measures or those of our third-party service providers and vendors has been heightened by advances in computer and software capabilities and the increasing sophistication of hackers who employ complex techniques, including, without limitation, the theft or misuse of personal information, counterfeiting, “phishing” or social engineering incidents, ransomware, extortion, publicly announcing security breaches, account takeover attacks, denial or degradation of service attacks and malware. Because the techniques used by bad actors change frequently, we or our third-party service providers or vendors may be unable to anticipate these techniques or implement adequate preventive measures. The costs to respond to a security breach and/or to mitigate any security vulnerabilities that may be identified could be significant, our efforts to address these problems may not be successful, and these problems could result in unexpected interruptions, delays, cessation of service, disruption of management’s attention, negative publicity or other harm to our business. We could be required to fundamentally change our business activities and practices in response to a security breach or related regulatory actions or litigation, which could have an adverse effect on our business.

 

We have contractual and other legal obligations to notify individuals, regulatory authorities and others of security breaches involving certain types of data. Laws governing data breaches may be inconsistent or change, and new laws may be adopted. In addition, our agreements with certain customers may require us to notify them in the event of a security breach. Such mandatory disclosures are costly, could lead to negative publicity, could divert management’s attention, could result in penalties or fines, could result in litigation, may cause our customers to lose confidence in the effectiveness of our security measures and may require us to expend significant capital and other resources to respond to and alleviate problems caused by the actual or perceived security breach.

 

A security breach may cause us to breach our customer contracts. Our agreements with certain customers may require us to use industry-standard or reasonable measures to safeguard personal information. We also may be subject to laws that require us to use industry-standard or reasonable security measures to safeguard personal information. A security breach could lead to claims by our customers or other relevant stakeholders that we have failed to comply with such legal or contractual obligations. As a result, we could be subject to legal action or our customers could end their relationships with us. There can be no assurance that the limitations of liability in our contracts would be enforceable or adequate or would otherwise protect us from liabilities or damages.

 

We may not have adequate insurance coverage for security incidents or breaches or other failures to comply with obligations governing data privacy or security. The successful assertion of one or more large claims against us that exceeds our available insurance coverage, or results in changes to our insurance policies (including premium increases or the imposition of large deductible or co-insurance requirements), could have an adverse effect on our business. In addition, we cannot be sure that our existing insurance coverage will continue to be available on acceptable terms or that our insurers will not deny coverage as to any future claim.

 

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We are subject to evolving laws, regulations, standards, policies, and contractual obligations related to data privacy and security, and our actual or perceived failure to comply with such obligations could harm our reputation, subject us to significant fines and liability, or otherwise adversely affect our business.

 

We are subject to or affected by a number of federal, state and local laws and regulations, as well as contractual obligations and industry standards, regarding the confidentiality, protection and appropriate use of personal, proprietary or confidential information. Such obligations may govern our collection, storage, retention, destruction, protection, use, processing, transmission, sharing and disclosure of personal information, including that of our employees, customers and others. The global data protection landscape is rapidly evolving, and implementation standards and enforcement practices may remain uncertain for the foreseeable future. We may not be able to monitor and react to all developments in a timely manner. Such developments could impose additional notification requirements, restrict our use of governed information and hinder our ability to acquire new customers or market to existing customers.

 

In the United States, these frameworks include the Federal Trade Commission Act, the Electronic Communications Privacy Act, the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act, the California Consumer Privacy Act (the “CCPA”), and other state and federal laws relating to privacy and data security. For example, California requires connected devices to maintain minimum information security standards. Additionally, the CCPA establishes a privacy framework for covered businesses, including an expansive definition of personal information and data privacy rights for California residents. The CCPA includes a framework with potentially severe statutory damages and private rights of action. The CCPA requires covered businesses to provide new disclosures to California residents, provides new ways to opt out of the sale of personal information, and provides a private right of action and potential statutory damages for data breaches. As we expand our operations, the CCPA may increase our compliance costs and potential liability. Some observers have noted that the CCPA could mark the beginning of a trend toward more stringent privacy legislation in the United States, and other jurisdictions in the United States have begun to propose similar laws. Compliance with any applicable privacy or data security laws and regulations is a rigorous and time-intensive process, and we may be required to put in place additional mechanisms to comply with such laws and regulations. Moreover, California voters recently approved the California Privacy Rights Act of 2020, or (“the CPRA”), that goes into effect on January 1, 2023. It is expected that the CPRA would, among other things, give California residents the ability to limit the use of their sensitive information, provide for penalties for CPRA violations concerning California residents under the age of 16, and establish a new California Privacy Protection Agency to implement and enforce the law. These laws exemplify our vulnerability to the evolving regulatory environment related to personal information.

 

We have established privacy policies and other documentation regarding our collection, processing, use and disclosure of personal information and/or other confidential information. Although we endeavor to comply with our established policies and other documentation, we may at times fail to do so or may be perceived to have failed to do so. Moreover, despite our efforts, we may not be successful in achieving compliance if our employees, contractors, service providers or vendors fail to comply with our established policies and documentation. Such failures can subject us to potential local, state and federal action if they are found to be deceptive, unfair, or misrepresentative of our actual practices.

 

Complying with privacy and data protection laws and regulations or other obligations may cause us to incur substantial operational costs or require us to change our business practices. Despite our efforts to bring practices into compliance with these laws and regulations, we may not be successful in our efforts to achieve compliance either due to internal or external factors such as resource allocation limitations or a lack of vendor cooperation. Because the interpretation and application of privacy and data protection laws are uncertain, it is possible that these laws and other actual or alleged legal obligations, such as contractual or self-regulatory obligations, may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent with our existing data management practices or in a manner inconsistent across the jurisdictions in which we operate. Noncompliance could result in proceedings against us by governmental and regulatory entities, customers, data subjects or others. Any inability to adequately address privacy or information security concerns, even if unfounded, or comply with applicable privacy or data protection laws, regulations, and policies, could result in additional cost and liability to us, damage our reputation, necessitate a change in our business practices, inhibit sales, and adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

 

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We are subject to various environmental laws and regulations that could impose substantial costs.

 

Our operations are and will be subject to foreign, federal, state and local environmental laws and regulations, including laws relating to the use, handling, storage and disposal of, and human exposure to, hazardous materials. Environmental and health and safety laws and regulations can be complex, and we have limited experience in compliance. Moreover, we expect that we will be affected by future amendments to such laws or other new environmental and health and safety laws and regulations which may require us to change our operations, potentially resulting in a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results. These laws can give rise to liability for administrative oversight costs, cleanup costs, property damage, bodily injury, fines and penalties. Capital and operating expenses needed to comply with environmental laws and regulations can be significant, and violations may result in substantial fines and penalties, third-party damages, suspension of production or a cessation of our operations.

 

Contamination at properties we own or operate, will own or operate, we formerly owned or operated or to which hazardous substances were sent by us, may result in liability for us under environmental laws and regulations, including, but not limited to, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, which can impose liability for the full amount of remediation-related costs without regard to fault, for the investigation and cleanup of contaminated soil and ground water, for building contamination and impacts to human health and for damages to natural resources. The costs of complying with environmental laws and regulations and any claims concerning noncompliance, or liability with respect to contamination in the future, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or operating results.

 

We may in the future expand internationally and may face risks associated with our international operations, including unfavorable regulatory, political, tax and labor conditions, which could harm our business.

 

If we expand our operations internationally, we may face risks associated with our future international operations, including possible unfavorable regulatory, political, tax and labor conditions, which could harm our business. We anticipate having international operations which would subject us to the legal, political, regulatory and social requirements and economic conditions in any future jurisdictions. However, we have limited experience to date selling and servicing our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs internationally and such expansion would require us to make significant expenditures, including the hiring of local employees and establishing facilities, in advance of generating any revenue. We are subject to a number of risks associated with international business activities that may increase our costs, impact our ability to sell and lease our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs and require significant management attention. These risks include:

 

conforming our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs to various international regulatory requirements where our products are sold;
  
difficulties in obtaining or complying with various licenses, approvals, certifications and other authorizations necessary to manufacture, sell, lease or service our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs in any of these jurisdictions;
  
difficulty in staffing and managing foreign operations;
  
difficulties attracting customers in new jurisdictions;
  
foreign government taxes, regulations and permit requirements, including foreign taxes that we may not be able to offset against taxes imposed upon us in the United States, and foreign tax and other laws limiting our ability to repatriate funds to the United States;
  
fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates and interest rates, including risks related to any interest rate swap or other hedging activities we undertake;
  
U.S. and foreign government trade restrictions, tariffs and price or exchange controls;

 

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foreign labor laws, regulations and restrictions;
  
changes in diplomatic and trade relationships;
  
changes in the price and availability of international shipping;
  
political instability, natural disasters, global health concerns, including health pandemics such as the COVID-19 pandemic, war or military conflict, including repercussions of the recent military conflict between Russia and Ukraine, or events of terrorism; and
  
the strength of international economies.

 

If we fail to successfully address these risks, our future business, prospects, financial condition and operating results could be materially and adversely affected.

 

Changes in U.S. trade policy, including the imposition of tariffs and the resulting consequences, could adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

 

The U.S. government has previously imposed tariffs on certain foreign goods, including steel and certain vehicle parts, which have resulted in increased costs for goods imported into the United States. In response to these tariffs, a number of U.S. trading partners have imposed retaliatory tariffs on a wide range of U.S. products, which makes it more costly for us to export our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs to those countries. Recent events, including new policy introductions following the 2020 U.S presidential election, may result in substantial regulatory uncertainty regarding international trade and trade policy.

 

United States policies have called for substantial changes to trade agreements, have increased tariffs on certain goods imported into the U.S. and have raised the possibility of imposing significant additional tariff increases. If we are unable to pass price increases on to our customer base or otherwise mitigate the costs, or if demand for our exported vehicles, powertrains and battery packs decreases due to the higher cost, our operating results could be materially and adversely affected. While we cannot predict the extent to which the United States or other countries will impose quotas, duties, tariffs, taxes or other similar restrictions upon the import or export of our products in the future, a “trade war” of this nature or other governmental action related to tariffs or international trade agreements could have an adverse impact on demand for our services, sales and clients and affect the economies of the United States and various countries, having an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

We are subject to export and import controls and laws that could subject us to liability if we are not in compliance with such laws.

 

Our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs are subject to export control, import and economic sanctions laws and regulations, including the U.S. Export Administration Regulations, U.S. Customs regulations and various economic and trade sanctions regulations administered by the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control. Exports of our vehicles, powertrains, battery packs and technology must be made in compliance with these laws and regulations. If we fail to comply with these laws and regulations, we and certain of our employees could be subject to substantial civil or criminal penalties, including the possible loss of export or import privileges; fines, which may be imposed on us and responsible employees or managers; and, in extreme cases, the incarceration of responsible employees or managers.

 

In addition, changes to our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs, or changes in applicable export control, import, or economic sanctions laws and regulations may create delays in the introduction and sale of our products and solutions or, in some cases, prevent the export or import of our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs to certain countries, governments, or persons altogether. Any change in export, import, or economic sanctions laws and regulations, shift in the enforcement or scope of existing laws and regulations, or change in the countries, governments, persons, or technologies targeted by such laws and regulations could also result in decreased use of our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs, as well as our decreased ability to export or market our products to potential customers. Any decreased use of our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs or limitation on our ability to export or market our products would likely adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

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We are subject to U.S. and foreign anti-corruption and anti-money laundering laws and regulations. We can face criminal liability and other serious consequences for violations, which can harm our business.

 

We are subject to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, the U.S. domestic bribery statute contained in 18 U.S.C. § 201, the U.S. Travel Act, the USA PATRIOT Act and possibly other anti-bribery and anti-money laundering laws in countries in which we conduct activities. Anti-corruption laws are interpreted broadly and prohibit companies and their employees, agents, contractors and other collaborators from authorizing, promising, offering or providing, directly or indirectly, improper payments or anything else of value to recipients in the public or private sector. We can be held liable for the corrupt or other illegal activities of our employees, agents, contractors and other collaborators, even if we do not explicitly authorize or have actual knowledge of such activities. Any violations of the laws and regulations described above may result in substantial civil and criminal fines and penalties, imprisonment, the loss of export or import privileges, debarment, tax reassessments, breach of contract and fraud litigation, reputational harm and other consequences.

 

We may not be able to obtain or agree on acceptable terms and conditions for all or a significant portion of the government grants, loans and other incentives for which we may apply. As a result, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results may be adversely affected.

 

We have applied, and intend to continue to apply, for federal and state grants, loans and tax incentives under government programs designed to stimulate the economy and support the production of alternative fuel and electric vehicles and related technologies. We anticipate that in the future there will be new opportunities for us to apply for grants, loans and other incentives from U.S. federal, state and foreign governments. Our ability to obtain funds or incentives from government sources is subject to the availability of funds under applicable government programs and approval of our applications to participate in such programs. The application process for these funds and other incentives will likely be highly competitive. We cannot assure you that we will be successful in obtaining any of these additional grants, loans and other incentives or that we will be eligible for certain tax or other economic incentives. If we are not successful in obtaining any of these additional incentives and we are unable to find alternative sources of funding to meet our planned capital needs, our business and prospects could be materially adversely affected.

 

We may need to defend ourselves against intellectual property infringement claims or misappropriation claims, which may be time-consuming and expensive and, if adversely determined, could limit our ability to commercialize our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs.

 

Companies, organizations or individuals, including our competitors, may own or obtain patents, trademarks or other proprietary rights that could prevent or limit our ability to make, use, develop or deploy our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs, which could make it more difficult for us to operate our business. We may receive inquiries from patent, copyright or trademark owners inquiring whether we infringe upon their proprietary rights. We may also be the subject of more formal allegations that we have misappropriated such parties’ trade secrets or other proprietary rights. Companies owning patents or other intellectual property rights relating to battery packs, electric motors, fuel cells or electronic power management systems may allege infringement or misappropriation of such rights. In response to a determination that we have infringed upon or misappropriated a third party’s intellectual property rights, we may be required to do one or more of the following:

 

cease development, sales or use of our products that incorporate the asserted intellectual property;
  
pay substantial damages;
  
obtain a license from the owner of the asserted intellectual property right, which license may not be available on reasonable terms or available at all; or
  
re-design one or more aspects or systems of our vehicles, powertrains or battery packs.

 

A successful claim of infringement or misappropriation against us could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results. Even if we are successful in defending against these claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and demand on management resources.

 

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Our business may be adversely affected if we fail to obtain, maintain, enforce and protect our intellectual property and are unable to prevent unauthorized use by third parties of our intellectual property and proprietary technology.

 

Our ability to compete effectively is dependent in part upon our ability to obtain, maintain, enforce and protect our intellectual property rights. To accomplish this, we rely on a combination of patents, trade secrets (including know-how), employee and third-party nondisclosure agreements, copyrights, trademarks, intellectual property licenses and other contractual rights to establish and protect our rights in our technology. Failure to adequately obtain, maintain, enforce and protect our intellectual property could result in our competitors offering identical or similar products, potentially resulting in the loss of our competitive advantage and a decrease in our revenue which would adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

 

The protection of our intellectual property rights will be important to our future business opportunities. However, the measures we take to obtain, maintain, protect and enforce our intellectual property, including preventing unauthorized use by third parties, may not be effective for various reasons, including the following:

 

as noted below, any patent applications we submit may not result in the issuance of patents;
  
the scope of our patents that may subsequently issue may not be broad enough to protect our proprietary rights;
  
our issued patents may be challenged or invalidated by third parties;
  
our employees or business partners may breach their confidentiality, non-disclosure and non-use obligations to us;
  
third parties may independently develop technologies that are the same or similar to ours;
  
the costs associated with enforcing patents, confidentiality and invention agreements or other intellectual property rights may make enforcement impracticable; and
  
current and future competitors may circumvent or otherwise design around our patents.

 

Patent, trademark, copyright and trade secret laws vary throughout the world. Some foreign countries do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as do the laws of the United States. Further, policing the unauthorized use of our intellectual property rights in foreign jurisdictions may be difficult. Therefore, our intellectual property rights may not be as strong or as easily enforced outside of the U.S.

 

Also, while we have registered and applied for trademarks in an effort to protect our investment in our brand and goodwill with customers, competitors may challenge the validity of those trademarks and other brand names in which we have invested. Defending such challenges can be expensive and may adversely affect our ability to maintain the goodwill gained in connection with a particular trademark.

 

It is our policy to enter into confidentiality and invention assignment agreements with our employees and contractors that have developed material intellectual property for us, but these agreements may not be self-executing and may not otherwise adequately protect our intellectual property, particularly with respect to conflicts of ownership relating to work product generated by the employees and contractors. Furthermore, we cannot be certain that these agreements will not be breached and that third parties will not gain access to our trade secrets, know-how and other proprietary technology. Third parties may also independently develop the same or substantially similar proprietary technology. Monitoring unauthorized use of our intellectual property is difficult and costly, as are the steps we have taken or will take to prevent misappropriation.

 

We may license patents and other intellectual property from third parties, including suppliers and service providers, and we may face claims that our use of this in-licensed technology infringes, misappropriates or otherwise violates the intellectual property rights of third parties. In such cases, we will seek indemnification from our licensors. However, our rights to indemnification may be unavailable or insufficient to cover our costs and losses. Furthermore, disputes may arise with our licensors regarding the intellectual property subject to, and any of our rights and obligations under, any license or other commercial agreement.

 

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To prevent unauthorized use of our intellectual property, it may be necessary to prosecute actions for infringement, misappropriation or other violation of our intellectual property against third parties. Any such action could result in significant costs and diversion of our resources and management’s attention, and there can be no assurance that we will be successful in any such action. Furthermore, many of our current and potential competitors have the ability to dedicate substantially greater resources to enforce their intellectual property rights than we do. Accordingly, despite our efforts, we may not be able to prevent third parties from infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating our intellectual property. Any of the foregoing could adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Our patent applications for our proprietary technology, including for the X-Platform and X-Pack battery pack, may not issue, which may have a material adverse effect on our ability to prevent others from commercially exploiting products similar to ours.

 

We cannot be certain that we are the first inventor of the subject matter disclosure or to file a patent application for our proprietary technology, including for the X-Platform and X-Pack. If another party has filed a patent application to the same or similar subject matter as we have, we may not be entitled to the protection sought by the patent application. We also cannot be certain whether the claims included in a patent application will ultimately be allowed in the applicable issued patent. Further, the scope of protection of issued patent claims is often difficult to determine. As a result, we cannot be certain that the patent applications that we file will issue, or that our issued patents will afford protection against competitors with similar technology. In addition, our competitors may design around our issued patents, which may adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

 

Our business may be adversely affected by labor and union activities.

 

Although none of our employees are currently represented by a labor union, it is common throughout the automobile industry generally for many employees at automobile companies to belong to a union, which can result in higher employee costs and increased risk of work stoppages. We may also directly and indirectly depend upon other companies with unionized work forces, such as our manufacturing partners, parts suppliers and trucking and freight companies, and work stoppages or strikes organized by such unions could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition or operating results.

 

Risks Related to Ownership of Our Securities

 

The price of our Common Stock and Warrants may be volatile.

 

The price of our Common Stock, as well as the Warrants, may fluctuate due to a variety of factors, including:

 

changes in the industries in which we and our customers operate;
  
developments involving our competitors;
  
changes in laws and regulations affecting our business;
  
variations in our operating performance and the performance of our competitors in general;
  
actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly or annual operating results;
  
publication of research reports by securities analysts about us or our competitors or our industry
  
the public’s reaction to our press releases, our other public announcements and our filings with the SEC, particularly with respect to fluctuations in our growth expectations and outlook;
  
actions by stockholders, including the sale by the PIPE Investors of any of their shares of our Common Stock;
  
additions and departures of key personnel;
  
commencement of, or involvement in, litigation involving us;

 

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changes in our capital structure, such as future issuances of securities or the incurrence of additional debt;
  
the volume of shares of our Common Stock available for public sale; and
  
general economic and political conditions, such as the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, recessions, interest rates, local and national elections, fuel prices, international currency fluctuations, corruption, political instability and acts of war or military conflict, including repercussions of the recent military conflict between Russia and Ukraine, or terrorism.

 

These market and industry factors may materially reduce the market price of our Common Stock and the Warrants regardless of our operating performance.

 

We do not expect to declare any dividends in the foreseeable future.

 

We intend to retain future earnings, if any, to finance the further development and expansion of our business and do not intend to pay cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future determination to pay dividends will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors (our “Board”) and will depend on our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, restrictions contained in future agreements and financing instruments, business prospects and such other factors as our Board deems relevant.

 

If securities or industry analysts do not publish, or cease publishing, research or reports about us, our business or our market, or if they change their recommendations regarding our Common Stock adversely, the price and trading volume of our Common Stock could decline.

 

The trading market for our Common Stock will depend in part on the research and reports that analysts publish about our business. We do not have any control over these analysts. If one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our Common Stock or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, the price of our Common Stock could decline. If few analysts cover us, the demand for our Common Stock could decrease and the price of our Common Stock and trading volume may decline. Similar results may occur if one or more of these analysts stop covering us in the future or fail to publish reports on us regularly.

 

We may be subject to securities litigation, which is expensive and could divert management attention.

 

The market price of our Common Stock may be volatile and, in the past, companies that have experienced volatility in the market price of their stock have been subject to securities class action litigation. We may be the target of this type of litigation in the future. Securities litigation against us could result in substantial costs and divert management’s attention from other business concerns, which could seriously harm our business.

 

Future resales of our Common Stock may cause the market price of our securities to drop significantly, even if our business is doing well.

 

In connection with the Business Combination, certain stockholders, officers and directors of Legacy Xos entered into lock-up agreements pursuant to which they will be contractually restricted from selling or transferring any of (i) their shares of our Common Stock held immediately following the Closing and (ii) any of their shares of our Common Stock that result from converting securities held immediately following the Closing (the “Lock-up Shares”). Such restrictions began at Closing and ended on February 16, 2022.

 

Additionally, Dakota Semler and Giordano Sordoni, our co-founders, agreed to additional lock-up restrictions beyond those described above. During the term beginning on February 16, 2022 and ending two years following the Closing Date, the co-founders are only permitted to sell their Lock-Up Shares via written trading plans in compliance with Rule 10b5-1 under the Exchange Act.

 

NextGen, LLC (“NextGen Sponsor”) entered into a letter agreement, dated October 6, 2020, by and among NextGen, NextGen Sponsor and the other parties thereto, pursuant to which NextGen Sponsor and its permitted distributors are subject to a lock-up ending on the earlier of (i) the date that is one year after the Closing and (ii) the date on which the last reported sale price of Common Stock equals or exceeds $12.00 per share for any 20 trading days within any 30-trading day period commencing at least 150 days after the Closing. As of March 23, 2022, approximately 21.8% of the outstanding shares of our Common Stock were subject to lock-up agreements.

 

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However, following the expiration of such lock-ups, the holders subject to lock-up agreements will not be restricted from selling shares of our Common Stock held by them, other than by applicable securities laws. As such, sales of a substantial number of shares of our Common Stock in the public market could occur at any time. These sales, or the perception in the market that the holders of a large number of shares intend to sell shares, could reduce the market price of our Common Stock.

 

The shares held by the holders subject to lock-up agreements may be sold after the expiration of their applicable lock-up periods. As restrictions on resale end and registration statements are available for use, the sale or possibility of sale of these shares could increase the volatility in our share price and the market price of our Common Stock could decline.

 

There is no guarantee that the Warrants will be in the money at the time they become exercisable, and they may expire worthless.

 

The exercise price for our Warrants is $11.50 per share of Common Stock. There is no guarantee that the Warrants will be in the money following the time they become exercisable and prior to their expiration, and as such, the Warrants may expire worthless.

 

The terms of the Warrants may be amended in a manner adverse to a holder if holders of at least 65% of the then outstanding Public Warrants approve of such amendment.

 

The Warrants were issued in registered form under a Warrant Agreement between the warrant agent and NextGen. The Warrant Agreement provides that (a) the terms of the Warrants may be amended without the consent of any holder for the purpose of (i) curing any ambiguity or correct any mistake, including to conform the provisions of the Warrant Agreement to the description of the terms of the Warrants and the Warrant Agreement set forth in the related prospectus, or defective provision or (ii) adding or changing any provisions with respect to matters or questions arising under the Warrant Agreement as the parties to the Warrant Agreement may deem necessary or desirable and that the parties deem to not adversely affect the rights of the registered holders of the Warrants under the Warrant Agreement and (b) all other modifications or amendments require the vote or written consent of at least 65% of the then outstanding Public Warrants; provided that any amendment that solely affects the terms of the Private Placement Warrants or any provision of the Warrant Agreement solely with respect to the Private Placement Warrants will also require at least 65% of the then outstanding Private Placement Warrants.

 

Accordingly, we may amend the terms of the Public Warrants in a manner adverse to a holder if holders of at least 65% of the then outstanding Public Warrants approve of such amendment. Although our ability to amend the terms of the Public Warrants with the consent of at least 65% of the then outstanding Public Warrants is unlimited, examples of such amendments could be amendments to, among other things, increase the exercise price of the Warrants, shorten the exercise period or decrease the number of shares of our Common Stock purchasable upon exercise of a Warrant.

 

We may redeem unexpired Warrants prior to their exercise at a time that is disadvantageous to warrant holders, thereby making such Warrants worthless.

 

We have the ability to redeem the outstanding Warrants at any time after they become exercisable and prior to their expiration, at a price of $0.01 per warrant if, among other things, the last reported sale price of our Common Stock for any 20 trading days within a 30-trading day period ending on the third trading day prior to the date on which we send the notice of redemption to the warrant holders equals or exceeds $18.00 per share (as adjusted for share splits, share dividends, rights issuances, subdivisions, reorganizations, recapitalizations and the like). Redemption of the outstanding Warrants as described above could force warrant holders to: (i) exercise their Warrants and pay the exercise price therefor at a time when it may be disadvantageous for them to do so; (ii) sell their Warrants at the then-current market price when they might otherwise wish to hold their Warrants; or (iii) accept the nominal redemption price which, at the time the outstanding Warrants are called for redemption, we expect would be substantially less than the market value of the Warrants. None of the Private Placement Warrants will be redeemable by us (subject to limited exceptions) so long as they are held by NextGen Sponsor or its permitted transferees.

 

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In addition, we have the ability to redeem the outstanding Warrants at any time after they become exercisable and prior to their expiration, at a price of $0.10 per warrant if, among other things, the last reported sale price of our Common Stock for any 20 trading days within a 30-trading day period ending on the third trading day prior to the date on which we send the notice of redemption to the warrant holders equals or exceeds $10.00 per share (as adjusted for share splits, share dividends, rights issuances, subdivisions, reorganizations, recapitalizations and the like). In such a case, the holders will be able to exercise their Warrants prior to redemption for a number of shares of our Common Stock determined based on the redemption date and the fair market value of our Common Stock. The value received upon exercise of the Warrants (i) may be less than the value the warrant holders would have received if they had exercised their Warrants at a later time where the underlying share price is higher and (ii) may not compensate the holders for the value of the Warrants, including because the number of shares received of our Common Stock is capped at 0.361 shares per Warrant (subject to adjustment) irrespective of the remaining life of the warrants.

 

The Warrants are accounted for as derivative liabilities with changes in fair value each period included in earnings, which may have an adverse effect on the market price of our securities.

 

We account for the Warrants as derivative warrant liabilities. At each reporting period, (1) the accounting treatment of the Warrants will be re-evaluated for proper accounting treatment as a liability or equity, and (2) the fair value of the liability of the Public Warrants and Private Placement Warrants will be remeasured and the change in the fair value of the liability will be recorded as other income (expense) in our income statement. The impact of changes in fair value on earnings may have an adverse effect on the market price of our securities.

 

We may issue a substantial number of additional shares of Common Stock or Preferred Stock, including under our equity incentive plan. Any such issuances would dilute the interest of our stockholders and likely present other risks.

 

We may issue a substantial number of additional shares of Common Stock or preferred stock, $0.0001 par value per share (“Preferred Stock”), including under our equity incentive plan. Any such issuances of additional shares of Common Stock or Preferred Stock:

 

may significantly dilute the equity interests of our investors;
   
may subordinate the rights of holders of Common Stock if Preferred Stock is issued with rights senior to those afforded our Common Stock;
   
could cause a change in control if a substantial number of shares of our Common Stock are issued, which may affect, among other things, our ability to use our net operating loss carry forwards, if any, and could result in the resignation or removal of our present officers and directors; and
  
may adversely affect prevailing market prices for our Common Stock and/or Warrants.

 

Concentration of ownership among our existing executive officers and directors and their respective affiliates may prevent other investors from influencing significant corporate decisions.

 

As of March 15, 2022, our executive officers and directors and their respective affiliates as a group beneficially owned approximately 54.8% of the outstanding Common Stock. As a result, these stockholders are able to exercise a significant level of control over all matters requiring stockholder approval, including the election of directors, amendment of our Certificate of Incorporation and approval of significant corporate transactions. This control could have the effect of delaying or preventing a change of control of us or changes in management and will make the approval of certain transactions difficult or impossible without the support of these stockholders.

 

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Investments in us may be subject to U.S. foreign investment regulations which may impose conditions or limitations on certain investors (including, but not limited to, limits on purchasing our Common Stock, limits on information sharing with such investors, requiring a voting trust, governance modifications, forced divestiture, or other measures).

 

Certain investments that involve the acquisition of, or investment in, a U.S. business by a non-U.S. investor may be subject to review and approval by the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (“CFIUS”). Whether CFIUS has jurisdiction to review an acquisition or investment transaction depends on - among other factors - the nature and structure of the transaction, including the level of beneficial ownership interest and the nature of any information or governance rights involved. For example, investments that result in “control” of a U.S. business by a foreign person always are subject to CFIUS jurisdiction. Significant CFIUS reform legislation, which was fully implemented through regulations that became effective on February 13, 2020, among other things expanded the scope of CFIUS’s jurisdiction to investments that do not result in control of a U.S. business by a foreign person but afford certain foreign investors certain information or governance rights in a U.S. business that has a nexus to “critical technologies,” “critical infrastructure” and/or “sensitive personal data.” Moreover, other countries continue to strengthen their own foreign direct investment (“FDI”) regimes, and investments and transactions outside of the U.S. may be subject to review by non-U.S. FDI regulators if such investments are perceived to implicate national security policy priorities. Any review and approval of an investment or transaction by CFIUS or another FDI regulator may have outsized impacts on transaction certainty, timing, feasibility, and cost, among other things. CFIUS and other FDI regulatory policies and practices are rapidly evolving, and in the event that CFIUS or another FDI regulator reviews one or more proposed or existing investment by investors, there can be no assurances that such investors will be able to maintain, or proceed with, such investments on terms acceptable to such investors. CFIUS or another FDI regulator may seek to impose limitations or restrictions on, or prohibit, investments by such investors (including, but not limited to, limits on purchasing our Common Stock, limits on information sharing with such investors, requiring a voting trust, governance modifications, or forced divestiture, among other things).

 

General Risk Factors

 

We have been, and may in the future be, adversely affected by health epidemics and pandemics, including the ongoing global COVID-19 pandemic, the duration and economic, governmental and social impact of which is difficult to predict, which may significantly harm our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

 

We face various risks related to public health issues, including epidemics, pandemics and other outbreaks, such as the recent pandemic of respiratory illness caused by a novel coronavirus known as COVID-19. The impact of COVID-19, including changes in consumer and business behavior, pandemic fears, market downturns and restrictions on business and individual activities, has created significant volatility in the global economy. The spread of COVID-19 has also created a disruption in the manufacturing, delivery and overall supply chain of vehicle manufacturers and suppliers.

 

Government authorities have implemented numerous measures to try to contain the pandemic, such as travel bans and restrictions, quarantines, stay-at-home or shelter-in-place orders and business shutdowns. These measures may adversely impact our employees and operations and the operations of our suppliers, vendors and business partners, and may negatively impact our sales and marketing activities and the manufacturing schedule of our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs. In addition, various aspects of our business cannot be conducted remotely, including the testing and manufacturing of our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs. Furthermore, demand for our offerings may be negatively impacted if stay-at-home orders and other preventative measures related to the COVID-19 pandemic persist or are adopted by additional markets. While some government authorities have lifted or relaxed pandemic-related restrictions, these measures may remain in place for a significant period of time and they are likely to continue to adversely affect our testing, manufacturing and assembly plans, sales and marketing activities, business and results of operations.

 

The spread of COVID-19 has caused us and many of our contractors and service providers to modify our business practices, and we and our contractors and service providers may be required to take further actions as may be required by government authorities or that it determines are in the best interests of our employees, customers, suppliers, vendors and business partners. There is no certainty that such actions will be sufficient to mitigate the risks posed by the virus or otherwise be satisfactory to government authorities. If significant portions of our workforce or contractors and service providers are unable to work effectively, including due to illness, quarantines, social distancing, government actions or other restrictions in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic, our operations will be impacted.

 

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The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic impacts our business, prospects and results of operations will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including, but not limited to, the duration and spread of the pandemic, its severity, the actions to contain the virus or treat its impact and how quickly and to what extent normal economic and operating activities can resume. The COVID-19 pandemic could limit the ability of our customers, suppliers, vendors and business partners to perform, including third-party suppliers’ ability to provide components and materials used in our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs. We may also experience an increase in the cost of raw materials used in our manufacture of vehicles, powertrains and battery packs. Even after the COVID-19 pandemic has subsided, we may continue to experience an adverse impact on our business as a result of COVID-19’s global economic impact, including any recession that has occurred or may occur in the future.

 

Specifically, difficult macroeconomic conditions, such as decreases in spending by businesses as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, could have a material adverse effect on the demand for electric vehicles. Under difficult economic conditions, potential customers may seek to reduce spending by foregoing electric vehicles for other options and cancel agreements for our vehicles, powertrains and battery packs. Decreased demand for electric vehicles, particularly in the United States, could negatively affect our business.

 

There are no comparable recent events which may provide guidance, and, as a result, the ultimate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic or a similar health epidemic is highly uncertain and subject to change. We do not yet know the full extent of COVID-19’s impact on our business, operations, or the global economy as a whole. However, the effects could have a material impact on our results of operations, and we will continue to monitor the situation closely.

 

Catastrophic events may disrupt our business.

 

Labor discord or disruption, geopolitical events, social unrest, war, military conflict, including repercussions of the recent military conflict between Russia and Ukraine, terrorism, political instability, acts of public violence, boycotts, hostilities and social unrest and other health pandemics that lead to avoidance of public places or cause people to stay at home could harm our business. Additionally, natural disasters or other catastrophic events may cause damage or disruption to our operations, international commerce, and the global economy, and thus could harm our business. In particular, the COVID-19 pandemic, including the reactions of governments, markets, and the general public, may result in a number of adverse consequences for our business, operations, and results of operations, many of which are beyond our control. In the event of a major earthquake, hurricane or catastrophic event such as fire, power loss, telecommunications failure, cyber-attack, war or terrorist attack, we may be unable to continue our operations and may endure system interruptions, reputational harm, breaches of data security, and loss of critical data, all of which would harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition. In addition, the insurance we maintain would likely not be adequate to cover our losses resulting from disasters or other business interruptions.

 

Our employees and independent contractors may engage in misconduct or other improper activities, which could have an adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

 

We are exposed to the risk that our employees and independent contractors may engage in misconduct or other illegal activity. Misconduct by these parties could include intentional, reckless or negligent conduct or other activities that violate laws and regulations, including production standards, U.S. federal and state fraud, abuse, data privacy and security laws, other similar non-U.S. laws or laws that require the true, complete and accurate reporting of financial information or data. It is not always possible to identify and deter misconduct by employees and other third parties, and the precautions we take to detect and prevent this activity may not be effective in controlling unknown or unmanaged risks or losses or in protecting us from governmental investigations or other actions or lawsuits stemming from a failure to be in compliance with such laws or regulations. In addition, we are subject to the risk that a person or government could allege such fraud or other misconduct, even if none occurred. If any such actions are instituted against us, and we are not successful in defending ourselves or asserting our rights, those actions could have a significant impact on our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results, including, without limitation, the imposition of significant civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, monetary fines, disgorgement, integrity oversight and reporting obligations to resolve allegations of non-compliance, imprisonment, other sanctions, contractual damages, reputational harm, diminished profits and future earnings and curtailment of our operations, any of which could adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

 

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Our Certificate of Incorporation designates specific courts as the exclusive forum for certain stockholder litigation matters, which could limit the ability of our stockholders to obtain a favorable forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers or employees.

 

Our Certificate of Incorporation requires, to the fullest extent permitted by law, that derivative actions brought in our name, actions against current or former directors, officers or other employees for breach of fiduciary duty, other similar actions, any other action as to which the Delaware General Corporation Law (“DGCL”) confers jurisdiction to the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware and any action or proceeding concerning the validity of our Certificate of Incorporation or our Bylaws may be brought only in the Court of Chancery in the State of Delaware (or, if and only if the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware does not have subject matter jurisdiction thereof, any state court located in the State of Delaware or, if and only if all such state courts lack subject matter jurisdiction, the federal district court for the District of Delaware), unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum. This provision would not apply to suits brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or any other claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction. Our Certificate of Incorporation also provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the federal district courts of the United States shall be the exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act. This provision may limit our stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us and our directors, officers or other employees and may have the effect of discouraging lawsuits against our directors, officers and other employees. Furthermore, our stockholders may be subject to increased costs to bring these claims, and the exclusive forum provision could have the effect of discouraging claims or limiting investors’ ability to bring claims in a judicial forum that they find favorable.

 

In addition, the enforceability of similar exclusive forum provisions in other companies’ certificates of incorporation has been challenged in legal proceedings, and it is possible that, in connection with one or more actions or proceedings described above, a court could rule that this provision in our Certificate of Incorporation is inapplicable or unenforceable. In March 2020, the Delaware Supreme Court issued a decision in Salzburg et al. v. Sciabacucchi, which found that an exclusive forum provision providing for claims under the Securities Act to be brought in federal court is facially valid under Delaware law. We intend to enforce this provision, but we do not know whether courts in other jurisdictions will agree with this decision or enforce it. If a court were to find the exclusive forum provision contained in our Certificate of Incorporation to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could harm our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

 

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COMMITTED EQUITY FINANCING

 

On March 23, 2022, we entered into the Purchase Agreement with the Selling Securityholder. Pursuant to the Purchase Agreement, we have the right to sell to the Selling Securityholder up to $125,000,000 of shares of our Common Stock, subject to certain limitations and conditions set forth in the Purchase Agreement, from time to time during the term of the Purchase Agreement. Sales of Common Stock pursuant to the Purchase Agreement, and the timing of any sales, are at our option, and we are under no obligation to sell any securities to the Selling Securityholder under the Purchase Agreement. In accordance with our obligations under the Purchase Agreement, we have filed the registration statement that includes this prospectus with the SEC to register under the Securities Act the resale by the Selling Securityholder of up to 16,160,214 shares of Common Stock, consisting of 18,582 Commitment Shares that we issued to the Selling Securityholder as payment of a commitment fee for its commitment to purchase shares of Common Stock at our election under to the Purchase Agreement, and up to $125,000,000 of shares of Common Stock that we may elect, in our sole discretion, to issue and sell to the Selling Securityholder, from time to time under the Purchase Agreement.

 

We do not have the right to commence any sales of our Common Stock to the Selling Securityholder under the Purchase Agreement until the date on which all of the conditions to the Selling Securityholder’s purchase obligation set forth in the Purchase Agreement have been satisfied, including that the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part be declared effective by the SEC and the final form of this prospectus is filed with the SEC. From and after such date, we will have the right, but not the obligation, from time to time at our discretion, until the first day of the month following the 36-month period after the date of the Purchase Agreement, to direct the Selling Securityholder to purchase a specified amount of shares of Common Stock, not to exceed the lesser of (i) $20,000,000 or (ii) a certain percentage of the average daily trading volume during regular trading hours for the three trading days immediately preceding an Advance Notice, as described further below under the heading “— Advances and Payments of Common Stock Under the Purchase Agreement.”

 

We will control the timing and amount of any sales of Common Stock to the Selling Securityholder. Actual sales of shares of our Common Stock to the Selling Securityholder under the Purchase Agreement will depend on a variety of factors to be determined by us from time to time, which may include, among other things, market conditions, the trading price of our Common Stock and determinations by us as to the appropriate sources of funding for our company and its operations.

 

Under the applicable Nasdaq rules, in no event may we issue to the Selling Securityholder under the Purchase Agreement more than the Exchange Cap of 32,630,573 shares of Common Stock, which number of shares is equal to 19.99% of the shares of the Common Stock outstanding immediately prior to the execution of the Purchase Agreement, unless (i) we obtain stockholder approval to issue shares of Common Stock in excess of the Exchange Cap in accordance with applicable Nasdaq rules or (ii) the average price per share paid by the Selling Securityholder for all of the shares of Common Stock that we direct the Selling Securityholder to purchase from us pursuant to the Purchase Agreement, if any, equals or exceeds $3.03 per share (representing the lower of the official closing price of our Common Stock on Nasdaq on the trading day immediately preceding the date of the Purchase Agreement and the average official closing price of our common stock on Nasdaq for the five consecutive trading days ending on the trading day immediately preceding the date of the Purchase Agreement, as adjusted pursuant to applicable Nasdaq rules). Moreover, we may not issue or sell any shares of Common Stock to the Selling Securityholder under the Purchase Agreement which, when aggregated with all other shares of Common Stock then beneficially owned by the Selling Securityholder and its affiliates (as calculated pursuant to Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act and Rule 13d-3 promulgated thereunder), would result in the Selling Securityholder beneficially owning shares of Common Stock in excess of the 4.99% Beneficial Ownership Limitation.

 

Neither we nor the Selling Securityholder may assign or transfer any of our respective rights and obligations under the Purchase Agreement, and no provision of the Purchase Agreement may be modified or waived by the parties other than by an instrument in writing signed by both parties.

 

The net proceeds from sales, if any, under the Purchase Agreement, will depend on the frequency and prices at which we sell shares of Common Stock to the Selling Securityholder. To the extent we sell shares under the Purchase Agreement, we currently plan to use any proceeds therefrom for working capital and general corporate purposes.

 

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As consideration for the Selling Securityholder’s commitment to purchase shares of Common Stock at our direction upon the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the Purchase Agreement, upon execution of the Purchase Agreement, we issued 18,582 Commitment Shares to the Selling Securityholder.

 

The Purchase Agreement contains customary representations, warranties, conditions and indemnification obligations of the parties. The representations, warranties and covenants contained in such agreements were made only for purposes of such agreements and as of specific dates, were solely for the benefit of the parties to such agreements and may be subject to limitations agreed upon by the contracting parties.

 

Advances of Common Stock Under the Purchase Agreement

 

Advances

 

We will have the right, but not the obligation, from time to time at our discretion, until the first day of the month following the 36-month period after the date of the Purchase Agreement, to direct the Selling Securityholder to purchase up to a specified maximum amount of shares of Common Stock as set forth in the Purchase Agreement (each, an “Advance”) by delivering written notice to the Selling Securityholder (each, an “Advance Notice”) on any trading day (each, an “Advance Notice Date”), so long as:

 

The amount under any single Advance does not exceed $20,000,000;

 

The maximum number of shares of Common Stock that the Selling Securityholder is required to purchase in any single Advance under the Purchase Agreement is equal to:

 

150% of the average daily trading volume during regular trading hours as reported by Bloomberg L.P., for the three trading days immediately preceding an Advance Notice if the purchase price to be paid by the Selling Securityholder is 97% of the average VWAP as reported by Bloomberg L.P. on the three trading days commencing on the Advance Notice Date (“Option 1 Pricing Period”); or

 

  50% of the average daily trading volume during regular trading hours as reported by Bloomberg L.P., for the three trading days immediately preceding an Advance Notice if the purchase price to be paid by the Selling Securityholder is 95% of the VWAP as reported by Bloomberg L.P. on the trading day commencing on the Advance Notice Date (“Option 2 Pricing Period,” and together with the Option 1 Pricing Period, “Pricing Period”); and

 

  All shares of Common Stock subject to all prior Advances have been received by the Selling Securityholder and at least one trading day elapsed from the expiration of the applicable Pricing Period (the “Advance Date”).

 

Conditions to Each Advance

 

The Selling Securityholder’s obligation to accept Advance Notices that are timely delivered by us under the Purchase Agreement and to purchase shares of our Common Stock in Advances under the Purchase Agreement, are subject to the satisfaction, at the applicable Advance Notice Date, of the conditions precedent thereto set forth in the Purchase Agreement, all of which are entirely outside of the Selling Securityholder’s control, which conditions include the following:

 

the accuracy in all material respects of the representations and warranties of the Company included in the Purchase Agreement;

 

the Company having performed, satisfied and complied in all material respects with all covenants, agreements and conditions required by the Purchase Agreement to be performed, satisfied or complied with by the Company;

 

the registration statement that includes this prospectus (and any one or more additional registration statements filed with the SEC that include shares of Common Stock that may be issued and sold by the Company to the Selling Securityholder under the Purchase Agreement) having been declared effective under the Securities Act by the SEC, and the Selling Securityholder being able to utilize this prospectus (and any other prospectus included in any one or more additional registration statements filed with the SEC) to resell all of the shares of Common Stock issuable pursuant to such Advance Notice (and included in any such additional prospectuses);

 

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the SEC shall not have issued any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the registration statement that includes this prospectus (or any one or more additional registration statements filed with the SEC that include shares of Common Stock that may be issued and sold by the Company to the Selling Securityholder under the Purchase Agreement) or prohibiting or suspending the use of this prospectus (or any other prospectus included in any one or more additional registration statements filed with the SEC), and the absence of any suspension of qualification or exemption from qualification of the Common Stock for offering or sale in any jurisdiction;

 

all reports, notices and other documents required to have been filed by the Company with the SEC during the preceding twelve-month period pursuant to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act shall have been timely filed;

 

trading in the Common Stock shall not have been suspended by the SEC or Nasdaq (or, in the case of an Advance Notice, the Principal Market, as such term is defined in the Purchase Agreement), the Company shall not have received any final and non-appealable notice threatening the continued quotation of the Common Stock;

 

the Company shall have materially complied with all applicable federal, state and local governmental laws, rules, regulations and ordinances in connection with the execution, delivery and performance of the Purchase Agreement;

 

all of the shares of Common Stock that may be issued pursuant to the Advance Notice shall have been approved for listing or quotation on Nasdaq (or, in the case of an Advance Notice, the Principal Market), subject only to notice of issuance;

 

no condition, occurrence, state of facts or event constituting a Material Outside Event (as such term is defined in the Purchase Agreement) shall have occurred and be continuing; and

 

the receipt by the Selling Securityholder of the legal opinion as required under the Purchase Agreement.

 

Termination of the Purchase Agreement

 

Unless earlier terminated as provided in the Purchase Agreement, the Purchase Agreement will terminate automatically on the earliest to occur of:

 

the first day of the month next following the 36-month anniversary of the date of the Purchase Agreement; and

 

the date on which the Selling Securityholder shall have purchased shares of Common Stock under the Purchase Agreement for an aggregate gross purchase price equal to $125,000,000;

 

We also have the right to terminate the Purchase Agreement at any time, at no cost or penalty, upon five (5) trading days’ prior written notice to the Selling Securityholder, provided that there are no outstanding Advance Notices under which we are yet to issue Common Stock. We and the Selling Securityholder may also terminate the Purchase Agreement at any time by mutual written consent.

 

No Short-Selling by the Selling Securityholder

 

The Selling Securityholder has agreed that it and its affiliates will not engage in any short sales during the term of the Purchase Agreement and will not enter into any transaction that establishes a net short position with respect to the Common Stock. The Purchase Agreement stipulates that the Selling Securityholder may sell our Common Stock to be issued pursuant to an Advance Notice, following receipt of the Advance Notice, but prior to receiving such shares and may sell other Common Stock acquired pursuant to the Purchase Agreement that the Selling Securityholder has continuously held from a prior date of acquisition.

 

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Effect of Sales of our Common Stock under the Purchase Agreement on our Stockholders

 

All shares of Common Stock that may be issued or sold by us to the Selling Securityholder under the Purchase Agreement that are being registered under the Securities Act for resale by the Selling Securityholder in this offering are expected to be freely tradable. The shares of Common Stock being registered for resale in this offering may be issued and sold by us to the Selling Securityholder from time to time at our discretion over the term of the Purchase Agreement. The resale by the Selling Securityholder of a significant amount of shares registered for resale in this offering at any given time, or the perception that these sales may occur, could cause the market price of our Common Stock to decline and to be highly volatile. Sales of our Common Stock, if any, to the Selling Securityholder under the Purchase Agreement will depend upon market conditions and other factors to be determined by us. We may ultimately decide to sell to the Selling Securityholder all, some or none of the shares of our Common Stock that may be available for us to sell to the Selling Securityholder pursuant to the Purchase Agreement.

 

If and when we do elect to sell shares of our Common Stock to the Selling Securityholder pursuant to the Purchase Agreement, the Selling Securityholder may resell all, some or none of such shares in its discretion and at different prices subject to the terms of the Purchase Agreement. As a result, investors who purchase shares from the Selling Securityholder in this offering at different times will likely pay different prices for those shares, and so may experience different levels of dilution and in some cases substantial dilution and different outcomes in their investment results. Investors may experience a decline in the value of the shares they purchase from the Selling Securityholder in this offering as a result of future sales made by us to the Selling Securityholder at prices lower than the prices such investors paid for their shares in this offering. In addition, if we sell a substantial number of shares to the Selling Securityholder under the Purchase Agreement, or if investors expect that we will do so, the actual sales of shares or the mere existence of our arrangement with the Selling Securityholder may make it more difficult for us to sell equity or equity-related securities in the future at a desirable time and price.

 

Because the purchase price per share to be paid by the Selling Securityholder for the shares of Common Stock that we may elect to sell to the Selling Securityholder under the Purchase Agreement, if any, will fluctuate based on the market prices of our Common Stock during the applicable Pricing Period, as of the date of this prospectus we cannot reliably predict the number of shares of Common Stock that we will sell to the Selling Securityholder under the Purchase Agreement, the actual purchase price per share to be paid by the Selling Securityholder for those shares, or the actual gross proceeds to be raised by us from those sales, if any. As of March 23, 2022, there were 163,234,491 shares of our Common Stock outstanding, of which 57,933,555 shares were held by non-affiliates. If all of the 16,160,214 shares offered for resale by the Selling Securityholder under the registration statement that includes this prospectus were issued and outstanding as of March 23, 2022, such shares would represent approximately 9.0% of the total number of shares of our Common Stock outstanding and approximately 35% of the total number of outstanding shares held by non-affiliates, in each case as of March 23, 2022.

 

Although the Purchase Agreement provides that we may, in our discretion, from time to time after the date of this prospectus and during the term of the Purchase Agreement, direct the Selling Securityholder to purchase shares of our Common Stock from us in one or more Advances under the Purchase Agreement, for a maximum aggregate purchase price of up to $125,000,000, only 16,160,214 shares of Common Stock (18,582 of which represent the Commitment Shares we issued to the Selling Securityholder upon signing the Purchase Agreement as payment for the Selling Securityholder’s commitment to purchase shares of our Common Stock under the Purchase Agreement) are being registered for resale under the registration statement that includes this prospectus. Assuming all of such 16,160,214 shares were sold to the Selling Securityholder at the maximum 5% discount to the per share price of $3.03 (which represents the lower of the official closing price of our Common Stock on Nasdaq on March 22, 2022, the trading day immediately preceding the date of the Purchase Agreement, and the average official closing price of our Common Stock on Nasdaq for the five consecutive trading days ending on March 22, 2022, the trading day immediately preceding the date of the Purchase Agreement), such number of shares would be insufficient to enable us to receive aggregate gross proceeds from the sale of such shares to the Selling Securityholder equal to the Selling Securityholder’s $125,000,000 total aggregate purchase commitment under the Purchase Agreement. While the market price of our Common Stock may fluctuate from time to time after the date of this prospectus and, as a result, the actual purchase price to be paid by the Selling Securityholder under the Purchase Agreement for shares of our Common Stock, if any, may also fluctuate, in order for us to receive the full amount of the Selling Securityholder’s commitment under the Purchase Agreement, it is possible that we may need to issue and sell more than the number of shares being registered for resale under the registration statement that includes this prospectus.

 

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If it becomes necessary for us to issue and sell to the Selling Securityholder more shares than are being registered for resale under this prospectus in order to receive aggregate gross proceeds equal to $125,000,000 under the Purchase Agreement, we must first (i) obtain stockholder approval prior to issuing shares of Common Stock in excess of the Exchange Cap in accordance with applicable Nasdaq rules and (ii) file with the SEC one or more additional registration statements to register under the Securities Act the resale by the Selling Securityholder of any such additional shares of our Common Stock, which the SEC must declare effective, in each case before we may elect to sell any additional shares of our Common Stock to the Selling Securityholder under the Purchase Agreement. The number of shares of our Common Stock ultimately offered for resale by the Selling Securityholder depends upon the number of shares of Common Stock, if any, we ultimately sell to the Selling Securityholder under the Purchase Agreement.

 

The issuance, if any, of our Common Stock to the Selling Securityholder pursuant to the Purchase Agreement would not affect the rights or privileges of our existing stockholders, except that the economic and voting interests of each of our existing stockholders would be diluted. Although the number of shares of our Common Stock that our existing stockholders own would not decrease as a result of sales, if any, under the Purchase Agreement, the shares of our Common Stock owned by our existing stockholders would represent a smaller percentage of our total outstanding shares of our Common Stock after any such issuance.

 

The following table sets forth the amount of gross proceeds we would receive from the Selling Securityholder from our sale of shares of Common Stock to the Selling Securityholder under the Purchase Agreement at varying purchase prices:

 

Assumed Average
Purchase Price Per
Share
   Number of Registered
Shares to be Issued if
Full Purchase(1)
   Percentage of
Outstanding Shares
After Giving Effect to
the Issuance to the
Selling Securityholder(2)
   Gross Proceeds from
the Sale of Shares
to the Selling
Securityholder Under the
Purchase Agreement
 
$2.50    50,000,000          31%  $125,000,000 
$3.03(3)   41,254,125    25%  $124,999,999 
$3.46(4)   36,127,167    22%  $124,999,998 
$5.00    25,000,000    15%  $125,000,000 
$6.00    20,833,333    13%  $124,999,998 

 

 

(1)Does not include the 18,582 Commitment Shares that we issued to the Selling Securityholder as consideration for its commitment to purchase shares of Common Stock under the Purchase Agreement. The number of shares of Common Stock offered by this prospectus may not cover all the shares we ultimately sell to the Selling Securityholder under the Purchase Agreement, depending on the purchase price per share. We have included in this column only those shares being offered for resale by the Selling Securityholder under this prospectus (excluding the 18,582 Commitment Shares), without regard for the Beneficial Ownership Limitation. The assumed average purchase prices are solely for illustration and are not intended to be estimates or predictions of future stock performance.

 

(2)The denominator is based on 163,253,073 shares outstanding as of March 23, 2022 (which includes the 18,582 Commitment Shares we issued to the Selling Securityholder on March 23, 2022), adjusted to include the issuance of the number of shares set forth in the second column that we would have sold to the Selling Securityholder, assuming the average purchase price in the first column. The numerator is based on the number of shares of Common Stock set forth in the second column.

 

(3)Nasdaq base price.

 

(4)The closing sale price of our Common Stock on Nasdaq on March 22, 2022.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

 

All of the shares of our Common Stock offered by the Selling Securityholder pursuant to this prospectus will be sold by the Selling Securityholder for their respective accounts. We will not receive any of the direct proceeds from these sales. However, we may receive up to $125,000,000 aggregate gross proceeds from any sales we make to Yorkville pursuant to the Purchase Agreement. The net proceeds from sales, if any, under the Purchase Agreement, will depend on the frequency and prices at which we sell shares of Common Stock to the Selling Securityholder after the date of this prospectus. See the section titled “Plan of Distribution” elsewhere in this prospectus for more information.

 

We expect to use any proceeds that we receive under the Purchase Agreement for working capital and general corporate purposes. As of the date of this prospectus, we cannot specify with certainty all of the particular uses, and the respective amounts we may allocate to those uses, for any net proceeds we receive. Accordingly, we will retain broad discretion over the use of these proceeds. Pending our use of the net proceeds as described above, we intend to invest the net proceeds pursuant to the Purchase Agreement in interest-bearing, investment-grade instruments.

 

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MARKET INFORMATION FOR COMMON STOCK AND DIVIDEND POLICY

 

Market Information

 

Our Common Stock and Public Warrants are currently listed on Nasdaq under the symbols “XOS” and “XOSWW,” respectively. Prior to the consummation of the Business Combination, NextGen’s Class A Common Stock and the Public Warrants were listed on Nasdaq under the symbols “NGAC” and “NGACW”, respectively.

 

As of March 23, 2022, there were 82 holders of record of our Class A Common Stock and 18,833,298 public and private warrants outstanding held by 4 holders of record. Each Public Warrant entitles the registered holder to purchase one share of our Common Stock at a price of $11.50 per share, subject to certain adjustments. The actual number of stockholders is greater than this number of record holders and includes stockholders who are beneficial owners but whose shares are held in street name by brokers and other nominees.

 

Dividend Policy

 

We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our Common Stock or any other securities. We anticipate that we will retain all available funds and any future earnings, if any, for use in the operation of our business and do not anticipate paying cash dividends in the foreseeable future. In addition, future debt instruments may materially restrict our ability to pay dividends on our Common Stock. Payment of future cash dividends, if any, will be at the discretion of the board of directors after taking into account various factors, including our financial condition, operating results, current and anticipated cash needs, the requirements of then-existing debt instruments and other factors the board of directors deems relevant.

 

Securities Authorized for Issuance under Equity Compensation Plans

 

As of March 23, 2022, we had 20,920,440 shares of our Common Stock authorized for issuance under equity compensation plans. In connection with the Business Combination, our stockholders approved our 2021 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2021 Plan”) on August 18, 2021, which became effective immediately upon the Closing.

 

On October 26, 2021, we filed a registration statement on Form S-8 under the Securities Act to register the shares of our Common Stock issued or issuable under the 2021 Plan, which can be sold in the public market upon issuance, subject to applicable restrictions. The Form S-8 registration statement became effective automatically upon filing.

 

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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

The following discussion and analysis provides information which management believes is relevant to an assessment and understanding of our consolidated results of operations and financial condition. You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations together with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes to those statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. This discussion may contain forward-looking statements based upon current expectations that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including those set forth under the section entitled “Risk Factors”. Unless the context otherwise requires, references in this “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” to “we”, “us”, “our”, and “the Company” are intended to mean the business and operations of Xos and its consolidated subsidiaries.

 

Overview

 

We are a mobility solutions company manufacturing Class 5 to 8 battery-electric commercial vehicles. We facilitate the transition of fleets from internal combustion engine vehicles to zero-emission vehicles with proprietary technology suited to the commercial use case. We also provide a range of services to facilitate the transition of fleets to electric vehicles, including charging infrastructure, vehicle maintenance, financing and service.

 

Our X-Platform (our proprietary, purpose-built vehicle chassis platform) and X-Pack (our proprietary battery system) provide modular features that allow us to accommodate a wide range of last-mile applications and enable us to offer clients at a lower total cost of ownership compared to traditional diesel fleets. The X-Platform, our chassis platform, and X-Pack, our battery technology, are available for purchase as part of the Xos vehicle. The X-Platform and X-Pack were both engineered to be modular in nature to allow fleet operators to customize their vehicles to fit their commercial applications (e.g., upfitting with a specific vehicle body and/or tailoring battery range). In addition to a competitive vehicle purchase price, our technology can also drive savings throughout ownership through increased vehicle uptime, greater payload capacity and reduced service and maintenance expense. Ninety percent of vehicles in our targeted segments operate on routes under 200 miles per shift (referred to as “last-mile” routes). Vehicles that fulfill these predictable last-mile routes generally return to base hubs on a daily basis. Such vehicles are ideal candidates for electrification as operators are able to connect them to dedicated charging infrastructure at return-to-base hubs. Our modular and cost-effective vehicles have been on the road and in customers’ hands since 2018, further validating the durability of satisfaction with our vehicles. During the year ended December 31, 2021, we sold 22 vehicles and 22 powertrains, respectively. Since inception and up to December 31, 2021, we have delivered 71 vehicles and powertrains combined. Actual sales performance during the current year is down relative to anticipated deliveries due to delay in our battery production activities, which has resulted in manufacturing backlog in our vehicle assembly line.

 

We have taken a conservative approach to capital investment with our Flex manufacturing strategy, which leverages our strategic partners’ existing facilities and labor to assemble up to 5,000 vehicles annually per facility once fully ramped up. This strategy will enable us to scale our operations in a capital efficient manner and in lockstep with market demand. We have partnered with two third-party contract manufacturer partners to operate two Flex facilities. Our Flex facilities are currently tooled to produce up to approximately 2,000 vehicles per annum in total, assuming we are able to mitigate current supply chain constraints.

 

Our Fleet-as-a-Service product facilitates the transition from traditional internal combustion engine vehicles to battery electric vehicles and provides fleet operators with a comprehensive set of solutions and products (including, but not limited to, Energy Services, service and maintenance, vehicle telematics, OTA updates and financing) to transition to and to operate an electric fleet. This product offering will combine traditionally disaggregated services into a bundled service package, thus reducing the cost and friction associated with electrifying commercial fleets. Services to be offered in our Fleet-as-a-Service offerings include our proprietary technologies and in-house services and offerings from our industry partners. Our Fleet-as-a-Service offering includes (i) Energy Services (on-site vehicle charging infrastructure as well as our proprietary mobile charging unit Xos HubTM); (ii) service and maintenance (provided by our internal maintenance team and industry partners); (iii) replacement parts; (iv) financing via our external partners; (v) risk mitigation products (e.g., GAP insurance and warranties); and (vi) our telematics unit, the Xosphere Intelligence Platform. Fleet-as-a-Service is expected to increase the lifetime revenue of each vehicle sold by us. For the year-ended December 31, 2021, we have generated $4.9 million in revenue (or 97% of revenue) from vehicle sales and $0.1 million from ancillary revenue (or 3% of revenue).

 

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We believe our growth in the coming years is supported by the strong secular tailwinds of an increased focus on the impact of climate change and the growth of e-commerce and last-mile delivery. Commercial trucks are the largest emitters of greenhouse gases per capita in the transportation industry. The U.S. federal, state and foreign governments, along with corporations such as FedEx, UPS and Amazon, have set ambitious goals to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Simultaneously, e-commerce continues to grow rapidly and has been accelerated by changes in consumer purchasing behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic. We believe the increased regulation relating to commercial vehicles, the launch of sustainability initiatives from leading financial and corporate institutions and the rapid growth of last-mile logistics will fuel accelerated adoption of our products worldwide.

 

We expect both our capital and operating expenditures will increase significantly in connection with our ongoing activities, as we:

 

continue to invest in research and development and further develop and commercialize our core proprietary technologies including our X-Platform chassis platform, X-Pack battery system and Fleet-as-a-Service platform;

 

increase our investment in marketing and advertising, sales and distribution infrastructure to accelerate the growth in sales of our products and services;

 

continue to invest in servicing our growing portfolio of vehicles on the road including account management, maintenance and service technicians and the Xosphere Intelligence Platform;

 

continue to build out supply chain team as well as additional battery and vehicle Flex assembly lines to bolster manufacturing capacity and meet demand targets, and to adjust to macroeconomic changes, including supply chain shortages;

 

continue to build out finance operations to maintain and improve financial controls, financial planning and risk management;

 

invest in operations functions including IT, administration and human resources to maintain and improve our operational systems, processes and procedures;

 

obtain, maintain, expand, and protect our intellectual property portfolio including patents, trade secrets, trademarks and copyrights; and

 

further invest in infrastructure to operate in accordance with public company standards and guidelines.

 

Recent Developments

 

On March 23, 2022, we entered into a Standby Equity Purchase Agreement (the "SEPA") with YA II PN, Ltd. (“Yorkville”), whereby we shall have the right, but not the obligation, to sell to Yorkville up to $125.0 million of shares of our Common Stock at our request any time during the 36 months following the execution of the SEPA, subject to certain conditions. We expect to use any net proceeds for working capital and general corporate purposes.

 

Business Combination and Public Company Costs

 

On August 20, 2021, the transactions contemplated by the Agreement and Plan of Merger, as amended on May 14, 2021, by and among NextGen, Sky Merger Sub I, Inc., a Delaware corporation and a direct wholly owned subsidiary of NextGen (“Merger Sub”), and Xos, Inc., a Delaware corporation (now known as Xos Fleet, Inc., “Legacy Xos”), were consummated (the “Closing”), whereby Merger Sub merged with and into Legacy Xos, the separate corporate existence of Merger Sub ceased and Legacy Xos became the surviving corporation and a wholly owned subsidiary of NextGen (such transaction the “Merger” and, collectively with the transfer by way of continuation and deregistration of NextGen from the Cayman Islands and the continuation and domestication of NextGen as a corporation incorporated in the State of Delaware (the “Domestication”), the “Business Combination”). As a result of the Merger, NextGen completed the Domestication, Merger Sub merged with and into Xos Fleet, Inc. (which was formerly known as Xos, Inc.), the separate corporate existence of Merger Sub ceased and Xos Fleet, Inc. was to be the surviving corporation and a wholly owned subsidiary of NextGen, and NextGen changed its name to “Xos, Inc.” Xos Fleet, Inc. is the accounting predecessor and the combined entity will be the successor SEC registrant, and Xos’ financial statements for previous periods will be disclosed in the registrant’s future periodic reports filed with the SEC.

 

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The Business Combination is accounted for as a reverse recapitalization. Under this method of accounting, NextGen has been treated as the acquired company for financial statement reporting purposes. The most significant change in the successor’s future reported financial position and results is an increase in cash by $216.7 million, net of transaction costs and redemptions. Total non-recurring transaction costs was approximately $55.4 million.

 

As a consequence of the completion of the Business Combination, we became the successor to an SEC-registered and Nasdaq-listed company with ticker “XOS”, which has required us and will continue to require us to hire additional personnel and implement procedures and processes to address public company regulatory requirements and customary practices. We have incurred and expect to incur additional annual expenses as a public company for, among other things, directors’ and officers’ liability insurance, director fees and additional internal and external accounting and legal and administrative resources, including increased audit and legal fees.

 

Key Factors Affecting Operating Results

 

We believe that our performance and future success depend on several factors that present significant opportunities for us but also pose risks and challenges, including those discussed below and in the section entitled “Risk Factors”.

 

Successful Commercialization of our Products and Services

 

We expect to derive future revenue from sales of our vehicles, battery systems and Fleet-as-a-Service offering. As many of these products are in development, we will require substantial additional capital to continue developing our products and services and bring them to full commercialization as well as fund our operations for the foreseeable future. Until we can generate sufficient revenue from product sales, we expect to finance our operations through commercialization and production with proceeds from the Business Combination. The amount and timing of our future funding requirements, if any, will depend on many factors, including the pace and results of our commercialization efforts.

 

Customer Demand

 

We have sold a limited number of our vehicles to our existing customers, have agreements with future customers and have received interest from other potential customers. We expect that the sales of our vehicles and services to our existing and future customers will be an important indicator of our performance.

 

Production of Lyra Series, Improved Battery Pack System

 

We have begun the production of the Lyra Series of battery packs to be installed on new Xos vehicles beginning in the fourth quarter of 2021. The Lyra series of battery packs features a 52% improvement in gravimetric energy density and a 45% improvement in volumetric energy density, and is compatible with all Xos on-highway vehicles. The battery packs come in two configurations: Lyra 30 (29.4kWh) and Lyra 60 (61.8kWh) offering 25 and 50 miles of range, respectively. Each pack features individual, recirculated air cooling and an independent battery management system, offering improved reliability and the ability to mix-and-match packs to cater to each customer’s unique range requirements.

 

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Supply Chain Management

 

As described more fully below, there are certain areas in our supply chain management that have been disrupted due to global economic conditions and the prolonged effect of the COVID-19 pandemic. Our ability to find alternative solutions to meet customer demands will affect our financial performance.

 

Global economic conditions, which the COVID-19 pandemic has contributed to, has impacted our ability to source certain of our critical inventory items. The series of restrictions imposed and the speed and nature of the recovery in response to the pandemic has placed a burden on our supply chain management, including but not limited to the following areas:

 

Semiconductor chip shortage: The global silicon semiconductor industry has experienced a shortage in supply and difficulties in ability to meet customer demand. This shortage has led to an increase in lead-times of production of semiconductor chips and components since the beginning of 2020.

 

Battery cells: The battery cell industry is facing a shortage in supply which is causing suppliers to limit customer allocations.

 

Supply limitation on vehicle bodies and aluminum: Vehicle body suppliers are currently experiencing elevated pricing or a shortage of key materials such as aluminum.

 

Despite supply chain disruptions, we have continued to source inventory for our vehicles and our purchasing team has been working with vendors to find alternative solutions to areas where there are supply chain constraints. Where appropriate and critical, we have placed orders in advance of projected need to try and offset disruptions. While we are working to minimize the impact of these supply limitations, we cannot be certain that all inventory will be able to be delivered in time for production plans.

 

Tightness in supply availability could lead to previously unforeseen cost and delivery pressures on certain material and logistical costs in 2022. As the Company accelerates execution of its strategic plans, we will endeavor to be strategic in our cost action plans, including working with various vendors and service providers to provide us cost-effective arrangements.

 

Impact of COVID-19

 

As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to evolve, the ultimate extent of the impact on our businesses, operating results, cash flows, liquidity and financial condition will be primarily driven by the severity and duration of the pandemic as well as the pandemic’s impact on the U.S. and global economies. During the year ended December 31, 2021, despite the continued COVID-19 pandemic, we continued to operate our business at full capacity, including all of our manufacturing and research and development operations, with the adoption of enhanced health and safety practices. Although we have made our best estimates based upon current information, actual results could materially differ from the estimates and assumptions developed by management. Accordingly, it is reasonably possible that the estimates made in the financial statements have been, or will be, impacted in the near term as a result of these conditions.

 

Basis of Presentation

 

The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Xos and its wholly owned subsidiaries, Legacy Xos and Xos Services, Inc. (f/k/a Rivordak, Inc.). All significant intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. All long-lived assets are maintained in, and all losses are attributable to, the United States.

 

Currently, we conduct business through one operating segment. We are an early-stage growth company with minimal commercial operations and our activities to date have been conducted exclusively within North America. For more information about our basis of operations, refer to Note 1 — Description of Business to our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

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Components of Results of Operations

 

Revenues

 

To date, we have primarily generated revenues from the sale of electric step van and stripped chassis vehicles and battery systems and the licensing of our software systems. Our stripped chassis is our vehicle offering that comprises our X-Platform electric vehicle base and X-Pack battery systems, which customers can upfit with their preferred vehicle body. As we continue to expand our commercialization, we expect our revenue to come from these products and other vehicle offerings including chassis cabs, which will feature our chassis and powertrain with the inclusion of a proprietary designed cab, and tractors, a shortened version of the chassis cab designed to haul trailers (also known as “day cabs”), that travel in last-mile use cases. In addition, we will offer a full suite of service offerings including energy services, service and maintenance, telematics and financing.

 

Revenue consists of product sales, inclusive of shipping and handling charges, net of estimates for customer allowances. Revenue is measured as the amount of consideration we expect to receive in exchange for delivering products. All revenue is recognized when we satisfy the performance obligations under the contract. We recognize revenue by delivering the promised products to the customer, with the revenue recognized at the point in time the customer takes control of the products. For shipping and handling charges, revenue is recognized at the time the products are delivered to or picked up by the customer. The majority of our current contracts have a single performance obligation, which is met at the point in time that the product is delivered, and title passes, to the customer, and are short term in nature.

 

Cost of Goods Sold

 

Cost of goods sold includes materials and other direct costs related to production of our vehicles, including components and parts, batteries, direct labor costs and manufacturing overhead, among others. Materials include inventory purchased from suppliers, as well as assembly components that are assembled by company personnel, including allocation of stock-based compensation expense. Direct labor costs relate to the wages of those individuals responsible for the assembly of vehicles delivered to customers. Cost of goods sold also includes depreciation expense on property and equipment related to cost of goods sold activities, calculated over the estimated useful life of the property and equipment on a straight-line basis. Upon property and equipment retirement or disposal, the cost of the asset disposed, and the related accumulated depreciation from the accounts and any gain or loss is reflected in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss), allocated to cost of goods sold.

 

Cost of goods sold also includes reserves to write down the carrying value of our inventory to their net realizable value and to provide for obsolete and on-hand inventory in excess of forecasted demand.

 

We are continuing to undertake efforts to find more cost-effective vendors and sources of parts to lower our overall cost of production. Direct labor and overhead costs relate primarily to expenses incurred through our third-party manufacturing partners. We expect these expenses to increase in future periods as production volume increases to meet expected growth in customer demand.

 

General and Administrative Expenses

 

General and administrative (“G&A”) expenses consist of personnel-related expenses, outside professional services, including legal, audit and accounting services, as well as expenses for facilities, non-sales related travel, and general office supplies and expenses. Personnel-related expenses consist of salaries, benefits, allocations of stock-based compensation, and associated payroll taxes. Overhead items including rent, insurance, utilities, and other items are included as G&A expenses. G&A expenses also include depreciation expense on property and equipment related to G&A activities, calculated over the estimated useful life of the property and equipment on a straight-line basis. Upon property and equipment retirement or disposal, the cost of the asset disposed, and the related accumulated depreciation from the accounts and any gain or loss is reflected in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss), allocated to G&A.

 

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We expect our G&A to increase for the foreseeable future as we scale headcount with the growth of our business, and as a result of operating as a public company, including compliance with the rules and regulations of the SEC, legal, audit, additional insurance expenses, investor relations activities, and other administrative and professional services. Corporate executives, finance legal and other administrative functions’ personnel-related expenses will remain as G&A expense.

 

Research and Development Expenses

 

Research and development (“R&D”) expenses consist primarily of costs incurred for the design and development of our vehicles and battery systems, which include:

 

Expenses related to materials and, supplies consumed in the development and modifications to existing vehicle designs, new vehicle designs contemplated for additional customer offerings, and our battery pack design;

 

Fees paid to third parties such as consultants and contractors for engineering and computer-aided design (“CAD”) work on vehicle designs and other third-party services; and,

 

Payroll expense for employees primarily engaged in R&D activities, including allocation of stock-based compensation expense.

 

We expect our research and development costs to increase materially for the foreseeable future as we continue to invest in research and development of our battery systems, chassis design and certain other technologies. As such, we expect salaries, benefits, and expenses related to those employees whose primary function is in the design and development of new and redesigned vehicle and battery design (primarily in our engineering department) to increase and be allocated.

 

Sales and Marketing Expenses

 

Sales and marketing (“S&M”) expenses consist primarily of expenses related to our marketing of vehicles and brand initiatives, which includes:

 

Travel expenses of our sales force who are primarily responsible for introducing our platform and offerings to potential customers.

 

Web design, marketing and promotional items, and consultants who assist in the marketing of the Company.

 

Payroll expense for employees primarily engaged in S&M activities, including allocation of stock-based compensation expense.

 

Depreciation expense on property and equipment related to S&M activities, calculated over the estimated useful life of the property and equipment on a straight-line basis. Upon property and equipment retirement or disposal, the cost of the asset disposed, and the related accumulated depreciation from the accounts and any gain or loss is reflected in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss), allocated to S&M.

 

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We expect these expenses to increase for the foreseeable future as travel expands due to the planned expansion of our sales team and increasing deployment of both direct and indirect marketing efforts. We expect an increase in our cost of sales and marketing expenses as we expand our ongoing hybrid distribution strategy that utilizes both direct distribution and indirect distribution through partnerships with our dealer network.

 

Other Income (Expense), Net

 

Other income (expense), net includes interest income from our investments in marketable debt securities, available-for-sale and interest paid on our equipment loans and convertible notes, as well as the amortization of the associated discount on the convertible notes.

 

Results of Operations

 

Comparison of the Years Ended December 31, 2021 and 2020

 

The following table sets forth our historical operating results for the periods indicated (dollars in thousands):

 

   Years Ended December 31, 
   2021   2020   $ Change   % Change 
Revenues  $5,048   $2,641   $2,407    91%
Cost of goods sold   7,410    2,341    5,069    217%
Gross margin   (2,362)   300    (2,662)   nm(1)
                     
Operating expenses                    
General and administrative   27,197    3,609    23,588    nm 
Research and development   20,077    7,015    13,062    186%
Sales and marketing   3,519    1,548    1,971    127%
Total operating expenses   50,793    12,172    38,621    317%
Loss from operations   (53,155)   (11,872)   (41,283)   348%
                     
Other income (expense), net   38    (3,285)   3,323    (101)%
Change in fair value of derivative instruments   18,498    (1,510)   20,008    nm 
Change in fair value of earn-out interests liability   72,505        72,505    %
Write off of subscription receivable   (379)       (379)   %
Realized loss on debt extinguishment   (14,104)       (14,104)   %
Income (loss) before provision for income taxes   23,403    (16,667)   40,070    (240)%
Provision for income taxes   2        2    %
Net income (loss)  $23,401   $(16,667)  $40,068    (240)%

 

 

(1)Percentage changes greater than or equal to 400% are not meaningful and noted as nm in the table above.

 

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Revenues

 

Our total revenue increased by $2.4 million, or 91%, from $2.6 million in the year ended December 31, 2020 to $5.0 million in the year ended December 31, 2021. Revenue recorded for the year ended December 31, 2021, was primarily attributable to our product revenue from dealer relationships (stepvans) and our longstanding customer relationship (powertrains). During the year ended December 31, 2021, we sold forty four units (22 stepvans and 22 powertrains), compared to 17 units (stepvans and powertrains combined) in the year ended December 31, 2020. Revenue for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 consisted of the following (dollars in thousands):

 

   Years Ended December 31, 
   2021   2020   $ Change   % Change 
Product revenue                
Powertrains  $2,152   $993   $1,159    117%
Stepvans & vehicle incentives   2,735    1,516    1,219    80%
Total product revenue   4,887    2,509    2,378    95%
                     
Ancillary revenue   161    132    29    22%
Total revenue  $5,048   $2,641   $2,407    91%

 

Cost of Goods Sold

 

Cost of goods sold increased by $5.1 million or 217% from $2.3 million in year ended December 31, 2020 to $7.4 million in the year ended December 31, 2021. The increase in cost of goods sold is directly attributable to the increase in our revenues and increases of (i) $1.1 million in the inventory reserve with no such comparable reserve during the year ended December 31, 2020 and (ii) $4.0 million in direct materials, direct labor, and manufacturing overhead.

 

The increase in direct labor costs is primarily attributable to an increased headcount to produce and fulfill orders for current and future orders. The increase in direct material costs, is due to not having supply contract agreements necessary to get competitive pricing for raw materials. As production increases and we order materials in larger quantities, we expect to have supply contract agreements that decrease the costs of raw materials. A significant portion of the overhead costs incurred include indirect salaries, facility rent, utilities, and depreciation of production equipment, which are primarily fixed in nature and allocated based on production levels. Accordingly, these costs are still incurred when we experience a reduction in production volume. In the near term, we plan to increase production activities, expecting fixed and semi-fixed overhead costs to be absorbed through the production of our batteries and chassis.

 

General and Administrative

 

General and administrative expense increased by $23.6 million, or 654%, from $3.6 million in the year ended December 31, 2020 to $27.2 million in the year ended December 31, 2021, attributable to increases of (i) $10.0 million in headcount and personnel cost for supply chain, sales, legal, accounting, information technology and general and administrative functions necessary to support our business growth (ii) $3.2 million in insurance costs driven by overall coverage increase and purchase of D&O insurance, (iii) $2.5 million in consultant costs related to the implementation of our new ERP system, financial processes, and the Business Combination, (iv) $2.1 million in facility expenses driven by an increase in rent, building and vehicle repair and maintenance and warehouse supplies, (v) $1.0 million in investment for equipment and technology driven by an increase in our headcount and (vi) $4.8 million in other operating expenses, including abnormal loss on inventory shrinkage, depreciation, travel, recruiting, freight and sales tax.

 

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Research and Development

 

Research and development expenses increased by $13.1 million, or 186%, from $7.0 million in the year ended December 31, 2020 to $20.1 million in the year ended December 31, 2021. The growth was primarily due to increases of (i) $5.6 million attributable to materials, the utilization of consultants, and software licenses for the development of new battery designs and product offerings, as well as further refinement of our chassis design, (ii) $6.1 million in allocation of personnel costs driven by higher headcount in engineering, including the allocation of stock-based compensation expense, and (iii) $1.4 million in net other costs, driven by equipment and software used solely for R&D purposes.

 

Sales and Marketing

 

Sales and marketing expense increased by $2.0 million, or 127%, from $1.5 million in the year ended December 31, 2020 to $3.5 million in the year ended December 31, 2021. The growth was primarily due to increases of (i) $0.6 million related to consulting fees, public relations costs, participation in tradeshows and general marketing efforts to enhance brand recognition and (ii) $1.4 million in allocation of personnel costs driven by higher headcount, including the allocation of stock-based compensation expense.

 

Other Income (Expense), Net

 

Interest income (expense), net increased by $3.3 million. or (101%), from $(3.3) million net interest expense in the year ended December 31, 2020 to $0.04 million net other income in the year ended December 31, 2021. The interest income during the year ended December 31, 2021 relates to interest income earned on our investments in marketable debt securities, available-for-sale, partially offset by interest expense from our equipment loan payables. The interest expense during the year ended December 31, 2020 relates to expense from our equipment loan payables and the interest expense on the convertible notes, which was extinguished during the quarter ended March 31, 2021.

 

Change in Fair Value of Derivatives

 

This represents changes in the fair value of the derivatives, mainly attributed to the (i) Public Warrants and Private Placement Warrants, and the (ii) conversion feature on the convertible notes issued in prior years. The convertible note was extinguished during the first quarter of 2021, resulting in the release of the derivative liability and hence, a significant fair value gain adjustment in 2021.

 

Change in Fair Value of Contingent Earn-out Interests Liability

 

This represents changes in the fair value of the contingent earn-out interests liabilities.

 

Write-off of Subscription Receivable

 

In 2020, we had a promissory note receivable in the amount of $364,000 due from our COO, Giordano Sordoni. The note was utilized to exercise options provided to him by the Company. The principal balance of the note and the associated accrued interest was subsequently forgiven during the year ended December 31, 2021. No similar transaction occurred during the year ended December 31, 2020.

 

Realized Loss on Debt Extinguishment

 

This represents the loss on the conversion of convertible debt into preferred shares during the year ended December 31, 2021. No similar transaction occurred during the year ended December 31, 2020.

 

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Non-GAAP Financial Measures

 

EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA

 

“EBITDA” is defined as net loss before other non-operating expense or income, income tax expense or benefit, and depreciation and amortization. “Adjusted EBITDA” is defined as EBITDA adjusted for stock-based compensation and other non-recurring items determined by management. Adjusted EBITDA is intended as a supplemental measure of our performance that is neither required by, nor presented in accordance with, GAAP. We believe that the use of EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA provides an additional tool for investors to use in evaluating ongoing operating results and trends and in comparing the Company’s financial measures with those of comparable companies, which may present similar non-GAAP financial measures to investors. However, you should be aware that when evaluating EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA we may incur future expenses similar to those excluded when calculating these measures. In addition, our presentation of these measures should not be construed as an inference that our future results will be unaffected by unusual or non-recurring items. Our computation of Adjusted EBITDA may not be comparable to other similarly titled measures computed by other companies, because all companies may not calculate Adjusted EBITDA in the same fashion.

 

Because of these limitations, EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for performance measures calculated in accordance with GAAP. We compensate for these limitations by relying primarily on our GAAP results and use EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA on a supplemental basis. The reconciliation of net income (loss) to EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA below should be used as a supplement and no single financial measurement should be used to evaluate our business.

 

The following table reconciles net income (loss) to EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 (in thousands):

 

   Years Ended December 31, 
   2021   2020 
Net income (loss)   $23,401   $(16,667)
Other income (expense), net    (38)   3,285 
Depreciation    736    296 
EBITDA    24,099    (13,086)
Change in fair value of derivative instruments    (18,498)   1,510 
Change in fair value of earn-out interests liability    (72,505)    
Stock based compensation    1,658    12 
Adjusted EBITDA   $(65,246)  $(11,564)

 

Liquidity and Capital Resources

 

We consummated the Business Combination, which resulted in net cash proceeds of approximately $216.7 million (including proceeds from NextGen trust account and PIPE investment less transaction costs and redemptions). As of December 31, 2021, our principal sources of liquidity were our cash and cash equivalents (excluding restricted cash) and investments in marketable debt securities, available-for-sale aggregating $165.7 million. In December 2020, we had the initial closing of our Series A Financing, and in the first quarter of 2021, we completed the Series A Financing, including the conversion of all our convertible notes into shares of Legacy Xos Preferred Stock. Prior to our Series A Financing in December 2020 and the Business Combination, we had financed our operations primarily from the sales of convertible notes.

 

As an early stage growth company, the net losses and cash outflows we have incurred since inception are consistent with our strategy and budget. We will continue to incur net losses and cash outflows in accordance with our operating plan as we continue to expand our research and development activities with respect to our vehicles and battery systems, scale our operations to meet anticipated demand and establish our Fleet-as-a-Service offering. Our ability to access capital when needed is not assured and, if capital is not available to us when and in the amounts needed, we could be required to delay, scale back or abandon some or all of our development programs and other operations, which could materially harm our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

 

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We believe that our existing cash resources, including capital raised in the Series A Financing and Business Combination, are sufficient to support planned operations for the next 12 months. Additionally, on March 23, 2022, the Company entered into a Standby Equity Purchase Agreement (the "SEPA") with YA II PN, Ltd. ("Yorkville"), whereby the Company shall have the right, but not the obligation, to sell to Yorkville up to $125.0 million of its shares of Common Stock at the Company's request during the 36 months following the execution of the SEPA, subject to certain conditions. The Company expects to use the net proceeds received from sales of Common Stock pursuant to the SEPA for working capital and general corporate purposes. As a result, our management believes that our current financial resources are sufficient to continue operating activities for at least 12 months past the issuance date of the financial statements.

 

Cash Flows Summary

 

The following table provides a summary of cash flow data for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 (in thousands):

 

   Years Ended December 31, 
   2021   2020 
Net cash used in operating activities  $(88,895)  $(12,338)
Net cash used in investing activities   (155,143)   (407)
Net cash provided by financing activities   252,855    23,085 
Net increase in cash and cash equivalents  $8,817   $10,340 

 

Cash Flows from Operating Activities

 

Our cash flows from operating activities are significantly affected by the growth of our business primarily related to research and development and selling, general, and administrative activities. Our operating cash flows are also affected by our working capital needs to support growth in inventory reserves and fluctuations in accounts payable and other current assets and liabilities.

 

Net cash used in operating activities was $88.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, primarily consisting of a cash-basis net loss of $49.7 million from normal operations of the Company (after non-cash adjustments of $72.8 million), and $39.5 million in working capital movements, primarily relating to inventory cost build-up and increase in prepayments as production ramps up.

 

Net cash used in operating activities was $12.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, primarily consisting of a net loss of $16.7 million from normal operations of the Company, non-cash adjustments of $3.5 million, and $0.8 million in working capital movements.

 

Cash Flows from Investing Activities

 

We continue to experience negative cash flows from investing activities as we expand our business. Cash flows from investing activities primarily relate to capital expenditures to support our growth, as well as investing available cash from the Business Combination to earn interest income. Net cash used in capital expenditures is expected to continue to expand.

 

Net cash used in investing activities was $155.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, primarily consisting of property and equipment additions of $4.9 million and net purchase of investments in marketable debt securities, available-for-sale of $150.2 million.

 

Net cash used in investing activities was $0.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, primarily consisting of property and equipment additions.

 

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Cash Flows from Financing Activities

 

Net cash provided by financing activities was $252.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, primarily consisting of the $20.7 million proceeds from the consummation of the Business Combination (including proceeds from NextGen trust account and PIPE investment less transaction costs and redemptions), $31.8 million proceeds from additional Series A financing in January and February 2021, $2.4 million collection of the outstanding subscription receivable and $2.7 million proceeds from the exercise of Legacy Xos Preferred Stock Warrant. These increases were partially offset by $0.3 million of taxes paid related to net share settlement of stock-based awards.

 

Net cash provided by financing activities was $23.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, which primarily relating to the Series A Financing in December 2020, resulting in the receipt of $23.1 million in cash and subscription receivables. As part of this financing, we also converted all of our convertible debt and accrued interest to additional shares of Legacy Xos Preferred Stock in January 2021.

 

Contractual Obligations and Commitments

 

We did not have any material contractual obligations or other commitments as of December 31, 2021, other than what is disclosed in Note 14 – Commitments and Contingencies to our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

 

Our financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) which requires management to make certain estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities as of the balance sheet date, as well as reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. Our most significant estimates and judgments involve valuation of stock-based compensation, including the fair value of our Common Stock, and the valuation of the convertible notes payable, the SAFE, and derivative liability. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions believed to be reasonable, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities. Actual results could differ from those estimates, and such differences could be material to our financial statements.

 

We believe that the accounting policies discussed below are critical to understanding our historical and future performance, as these policies relate to the more significant areas involving management’s judgments and estimates.

 

While our significant accounting policies are described in the notes to our financial statements (see Note 2 – Basis of Presentation, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Recent Accounting Pronouncements to our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus ), we believe that the following accounting policies require a greater degree of judgment and complexity. Accordingly, these are the policies we believe are the most critical to aid in fully understanding and evaluating our financial condition and results of operations.

 

Revenue Recognition

 

We generate revenue from the sale of its commercial electric vehicles, powertrains and battery packs, the licensing of its software systems, and warranty contracts. ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, requires us to recognize revenue in a way that depicts the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. We determine revenue recognition by applying the following steps:

 

1. Identifying the contract with a customer;

 

2. Identifying the performance obligations in the contract;

 

3. Determining the transaction price;

 

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4. Allocating the transaction price to the performance obligations; and

 

5. Recognizing revenue as the performance obligations are satisfied.

 

We recognize revenue consisting of product and vehicle parts sales, inclusive of shipping and handling charges, net of estimates for customer allowances. Revenue contracts are identified when an enforceable agreement has been made with a customer. Performance obligations are identified in the contract for each distinct products provided within the contract. Revenue is measured as the amount of consideration we expect to receive in exchange for transferring products. All revenue is recognized when we satisfy its performance obligations under the contract. Any deposits from customers represent contract liabilities. We recognize revenue by transferring the promised products to the customer, with the revenue recognized at the point in time the customer takes control of the products as agreed in the contracts. We recognize revenue for shipping and handling charges at the time the products are delivered to or picked up by the customer. The majority of its contracts have a single performance obligation, which is met at the point in time that the product is delivered, and title passes to the customer, and are short term in nature.

 

See Note 2 – Basis of Presentation, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Recent Accounting Pronouncements and Note 3 – Revenue Recognition to our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus for additional information.

 

Income Taxes

 

We apply the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases, as well as net operating losses and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be realized or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized as income or expense in the period that includes the enactment date.

 

In assessing the realizability of deferred income tax assets, ASC 740 requires a more likely than not standard be met. If we determine that it is more likely than not that deferred income tax assets will not be realized, a valuation allowance must be established. We record a valuation allowance, when necessary, to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount expected to be realized. Estimates of the realizability of deferred tax assets, as well as its assessment of whether an established valuation allowance should be reversed, are based on projected future taxable income, the expected timing of the reversal of deferred tax liabilities, and tax planning strategies. When evaluating whether projected future taxable income will support the realization of deferred tax assets, we consider both its historical financial performance and general economic conditions. In addition, we consider the time frame over which it would take to utilize the deferred tax assets prior to their expiration.

 

We utilize a two-step approach to recognizing and measuring uncertain income tax positions. The first step is to evaluate the tax position for recognition by determining if the weight of available evidence indicates it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained upon examination by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) or other taxing authorities, including resolution of related appeals or litigation processes. The second step is to measure the tax benefit as the largest amount which is more than 50% likely of being realized upon ultimate settlement. We consider many factors when evaluating and estimating tax positions and tax benefits, which may require periodic adjustments and may not accurately forecast actual outcomes.

 

See Note 16 – Income Taxes to our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus for additional information.

 

Investments in Marketable Debt Securities, Available-for-Sale

 

We maintain a portfolio of investments in a variety of fixed and variable rate debt securities, including U.S. treasuries, corporate debt, asset-backed securities and other, non-U.S. government and supranational bonds and certificate of deposit. We consider our investments in marketable debt securities to be available-for-sale, and accordingly, are recorded at their fair values. We determine the appropriate classification of investments in marketable debt securities at the time of purchase. Interest along with amortization of purchase premiums and accretion of discounts from the purchase date through the estimated maturity date, including consideration of variable maturities and contractual call provisions, are included in other income (expenses), net in the consolidated statements of net and comprehensive income. We typically invest in highly-rated debt securities, and its investment policy generally limits the amount of credit exposure to any one issuer. The policy requires substantially all investments to be investment grade, with the primary objective of minimizing the potential risk of principal loss.

 

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We review quarterly its investment portfolio of all securities in an unrealized loss position to determine if an impairment charge exists. See Note 7 – Investments in Marketable Debt Securities, Available-for-Sale to our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus for additional information.

 

Stock-Based Compensation

 

We account for stock-based compensation in accordance with ASC 718, Compensation — Stock Compensation, under which shared based payments that involve the issuance of Common Stock to employees and non-employees and meet the criteria for equity-classified awards are recognized in the financial statements as compensation expense based on the fair value on the date of grant.

 

Prior to the Business Combination, we issued stock options to purchase shares of common stock (“Options”) to employees and non-employees under the Xos, Inc. 2018 Stock Plan (the “2018 Stock Plan”). We allow employees to exercise options prior to vesting. We consider the consideration received for the early exercise of an option to be a deposit and the related amount is recorded as a liability. The liability is relieved when the options vest. We have the right to repurchase any unvested (but issued) shares upon termination of service of an employee at the original exercise price. We stopped issuing options under the 2018 Stock Plan in the fourth quarter of 2020.

 

We estimate the fair value of options on the date of the grant using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. Each of the Black-Scholes inputs generally require significant judgement, including the assumptions discussed below.

 

Fair value of Common Stock – equals the closing stock price on the day of award grant.

 

Expected term – the expected term represents the period that our Options are expected to be outstanding and is determined based on the “simplified” method, as prescribed in SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin (SAB) No. 107. The expected term of non-employee options is equal to the contractual term.

 

Risk-free rate – the risk-free interest rate is based on the interest rate payable on the U.S. Treasury securities with an equivalent expected term of the options.

 

Expected volatility – we determine the price volatility factor based on the historical volatilities of several publicly listed peer companies as we do not have trading history for its Common Stock.

 

Expected dividend yield – the expected dividend yield assumption is based on our current expectations about its anticipated dividend policy.

 

After the Business Combination, we ceased issuing equity under the 2018 Stock Plan and instead issued restricted stock units (“RSUs”) to employees and non-employees under the Xos, Inc. 2021 Stock Plan (the “2021 Stock Plan”). We initially valued RSUs based on the grant date closing price of our Common Stock. For awards with periodic vesting, we recognize the related expense on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period for the entire award, subject to periodic adjustments to ensure that the cumulative amount of expense recognized through the end of any reporting period is at least equal to the portion of the grant date value of the award that has vested through that date. We account for forfeitures prospectively as they occur.

 

If there are any modifications or cancellations of the underlying unvested share-based awards, we may be required to accelerate, increase or cancel any remaining unrecognized or previously recorded stock-based compensation expense.

 

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See Note 11 – Stock-Based Compensation to our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus for additional information.

 

Public and Private Placement Warrants

 

The warrants issued in connection with NextGen’s initial public offering and the Private Placement Warrants are recognized as derivative liabilities in accordance with ASC 815.

 

The Private Placement Warrants are identical to the Public Warrants underlying the units sold in the initial public offering, except that the Private Placement Warrants and the Common Stock issuable upon exercise of the Private Placement Warrants were not transferable, assignable or salable until September 19, 2021, subject to certain limited exceptions. Additionally, the Private Placement Warrants will be non-redeemable so long as they are held by the initial purchasers or their permitted transferees. If the Private Placement Warrants are held by someone other than the initial purchasers or their permitted transferees, the Private Placement Warrants will be redeemable by us and exercisable by such holders on the same basis as the Public Warrants.

 

We determine the fair value of our Public Warrants based on the publicly listed trading price of such Warrants as of the valuation date. Accordingly, the Public Warrants are classified as Level 1 financial instruments. Additionally, since the Private Placement Warrants are substantially the same as the Public Warrants, we determined the fair value of our Private Placement Warrants based on the Public Warrant trading price. Accordingly, the Public Warrants are classified as Level 2 financial instruments.

 

See Note 10 — Derivative Instruments to our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus for additional information.

 

Contingent Earn-out Shares Liability

 

Earn-out shares represent a freestanding financial instrument classified as liabilities on the accompanying consolidated balance sheet as we determine that these financial instruments are not indexed to our own equity in accordance with ASC 815, Derivatives and Hedging. Earn-out shares liability were initially recorded as fair value in the Business Combination and are adjusted to fair value at each reporting date with changes in fair value recorded in change in fair value of earn-out shares liability in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss).

 

The earn-out triggers included a change of control provision within five years of the Closing, and achieving certain volume weighted average share prices (“VWAPs”) within five years of the Closing. These conditions result in the instrument failing indexation guidance and are properly reflected as a liability as of December 31, 2021.

 

See Note 6 — Recapitalization and Contingent Earn-out Shares Liability to our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus for additional information.

 

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

 

See Note 2 — Basis of Presentation, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Recent Accounting Pronouncements to our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus for more information about recent accounting pronouncements, the timing of their adoption, and our assessment, to the extent we have made one, of their potential impact on our financial condition and our results of operations.

 

Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

 

Effective internal controls are necessary to provide reliable financial reports and to assist in the effective prevention of fraud. Any inability to provide reliable financial reports or prevent fraud could harm our business. Any system of internal controls, however well designed and operated, is based in part on certain assumptions and can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurances that the objectives of the system are met. As part of our process to establish an effective system of internal controls, management has identified areas of improvement in our preliminary system of internal controls over financial reporting that we are working diligently to address.

 

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If we cannot conclude that we have effective internal control over our financial reporting, investors could lose confidence in the reliability of our financial statements, which could lead to a decline in our stock price. Failure to comply with reporting requirements could also subject us to sanctions and/or investigations by the SEC, Nasdaq or other regulatory authorities. If we fail to remedy any deficiencies or maintain the adequacy of our internal controls, we could be subject to regulatory scrutiny, civil or criminal penalties or stockholder litigation. In addition, failure to maintain adequate internal controls could result in financial statements that do not accurately reflect our operating results or financial condition.

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

We are exposed to a variety of market and other risks, including the effects of changes in interest rates, inflation, and foreign currency exchange rates, as well as risks to the availability of funding sources, hazard events, and specific asset risks.

 

Interest Rate Risk

 

The market risk inherent in our financial instruments and our financial position represents the potential loss arising from adverse changes in interest rates. We maintain a portfolio of investments in a variety of fixed and variable debt rate securities, including, U.S. treasuries, corporate debt, asset-backed securities, non-U.S. government and supranational bonds and certificate of deposit. As of December 31, 2021, the fair value of investments in marketable debt securities, available-for-sale was $149.5 million. The primary objective of our investment activity is to maintain the safety of principal, and to provide for future liquidity requirements while maximizing yields without significantly increasing risk. While some investments may be securities of companies in foreign countries, all investments are denominated and payable in U.S. Dollars. We do not enter into investments for trading or speculative purposes. While our intent is not to sell these investment securities prior to their stated maturities, we may choose to sell any of the securities for strategic reasons including, but not limited to, anticipated capital requirements, anticipation of credit deterioration, duration management and because a security no longer meets the criteria of our investment policy. We do not use derivatives or similar instruments to manage our interest rate risk. We seek to invest in high quality investments. The weighted average rating (exclusive of cash and cash equivalents) was AA- as of December 31, 2021. Maturities are maintained consistent with our short-, medium- and long-term liquidity objectives.

 

The following table sets forth the impact on the fair value of our investments as of December 31, 2021 from changes in interest rates based on the weighted average duration of the debt securities in our portfolio (dollars in thousands):

 

 

Change in Interest Rate

  Approximate
Change in Fair
Value of Investments
Increase
(Decrease)
 
2% Decrease  $              2,190 
1% Decrease  $1,095 
1% Increase  $(701)
2% Increase  $(711)

 

Foreign Currency Risk

 

There was no material foreign currency risk for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020.

 

Inflation Risk

 

We monitor inflation and the effects of changing prices. Inflation increases the cost of goods and services used. If our costs were to become subject to significant inflationary pressures, we may not be able to fully offset these higher costs through price increases or mitigate the impact through alternative solutions. Our inability to do so could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

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BUSINESS

 

Overview

 

Xos, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries (collectively, the “Company” or “Xos”) is a mobility solutions company manufacturing Class 5 to 8 battery-electric commercial vehicles. We facilitate the transition of fleets from internal combustion engine vehicles to zero-emission vehicles with proprietary technology suited to the commercial use case. We also provide a range of services to facilitate the transition of fleets to electric vehicles, including charging infrastructure, vehicle maintenance, financing and service.

 

Our Mission

 

Our mission is to decarbonize commercial transportation by developing innovative technologies and intelligent mobility solutions at the intersection of transportation, energy and software.

 

Our Products

 

We developed the X-Pack (our proprietary battery system) and the X-Platform (our proprietary, purpose-built vehicle chassis platform) specifically for the medium- and heavy-duty commercial vehicle segment with a focus on last-mile commercial fleet operations. We offer our powertrain technology along with design and integration expertise to other original equipment manufacturers (“OEMs”) in the commercial, off-highway and industrial markets under our “Power by Xos” powertrain. In addition, our “Fleet-as-a-Service” offer our customers a comprehensive suite of commercial products and services to facilitate electric fleet operations and seamlessly transition their traditional combustion-engine fleets to battery-electric vehicles.

 

Our X-Pack and X-Platform provide modular features that allow us to accommodate a wide range of last-mile applications and enable us to offer clients industry-leading total cost of ownership. The X-Platform, our chassis platform, and X-Pack, our battery technology, are available for purchase as part of Xos vehicles. The X-Platform and X-Pack were both engineered to be modular in nature to allow fleet operators to customize vehicles to fit their commercial applications (e.g., upfitting with a specific vehicle body and/or tailoring battery range). In addition to a competitive vehicle purchase price, our technology can also drive savings throughout ownership through increased vehicle uptime, greater payload capacity and reduced service and maintenance expense. Ninety percent of vehicles in our targeted segments operate on routes under 200 miles per shift (referred to as “last-mile” routes). Vehicles that fulfill these predictable last-mile routes generally return to base hubs on a daily basis. Such vehicles are ideal candidates for electrification as operators are able to connect them to dedicated charging infrastructure at return-to-base hubs. Our modular and cost-effective vehicles have been on the road and in customers’ hands since 2018, further validating the durability of satisfaction with our vehicles.

 

Our powertrain solution is targeted at commercial, off-highway and industrial markets. We provide customers with proprietary powertrain technology and robust components, purpose-designed for the rigors of commercial use. Xos’ powertrain offerings include a broad range of solutions including high voltage batteries, power distribution and management componentry, battery management systems, system controls, inverters, electric traction motors, auxiliary drive systems, in addition to robust engineering, design, and integration services.

 

Our Fleet-as-a-Service facilitate the transition from traditional internal combustion engine (“ICE”) vehicles to battery electric vehicles and provides fleet operators with a comprehensive set of solutions and products (including, but not limited to, Energy Services, service and maintenance, vehicle telematics, over-the-air updates and financing) to transition to and to operate an electric fleet. This product offering will combine traditionally disaggregated services into a bundled service package, thus reducing the cost and friction associated with electrifying commercial fleets. Services to be offered in our Fleet-as-a-Service include our proprietary technology and in-house services (X-Platform, digital fleet management products, over-the-air software update technology, and a wide-range of service products) and offerings from our industry leading partners. Fleet-as-a-Service is expected to increase the lifetime revenue of each vehicle sold by us.

 

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We believe our growth in the coming years is supported by the strong secular tailwinds of an increased focus on the impact of climate change and the growth of e-commerce and last-mile delivery. Commercial trucks are the largest emitters of greenhouse gasses per capita in the transportation industry. The U.S. federal, state and foreign governments, along with corporations such as FedEx, Amazon and UPS, have set ambitious goals to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Simultaneously, e-commerce continues to grow rapidly and has been accelerated by changes in consumer purchasing behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic. We believe the increased regulation relating to commercial vehicles, the launch of sustainability initiatives from leading financial and corporate institutions and the rapid growth of last-mile logistics will fuel accelerated adoption of our products worldwide.

 

Industry Background

 

Commercial trucks in the United States emit as much greenhouse gas (“GHG”) per year as cars (approximately 750 million tons of GHG or 41% of all GHG emitted from transportation), despite traveling less than 45% the total distance of cars. Governments, corporations and investors are making concerted efforts and setting aggressive targets to phase out fossil fuel use and reduce GHG emissions. Such initiatives include setting timelines for zero-emission targets, establishing caps on CO2 emissions, and instituting certain other environmental sustainability initiatives.

 

In the U.S. the Biden Administration has declared the following key environmental targets: (i) a carbon-free power sector by 2035, (ii) a net-zero (i.e. carbon reduction is equal to or greater than carbon emissions) economy by 2050 and (iii) the transition of the U.S. federal government’s vehicle fleet to clean electric vehicle alternatives. Individual states have furthered the push for clean energy mobile solutions. In addition, Congress is currently considering the Build Back Better Act which has proposals to enhance battery processing and manufacturing and also advanced energy manufacturing and recycling grant program, which would support the transition of fleets to zero-emissions. California, the most populous U.S. state, issued Executive Order N-79-20 in September 2020, which requires that 100% of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles sales be zero-emission by 2035. Executive Order N-79-20 targets 100% of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles in operation to be zero-emission by 2045. California has also mandated that three percent (3%) of model-year 2024 heavy-duty vehicles sold in-state be zero-emission vehicles (“ZEV”), with such percentage increasing to 15% by 2030.

 

Additionally, approximately 20 other countries, including Canada and France, have committed to the phaseout of combustible engine vehicles by 2040 and substitution of ICE vehicles with zero-emission alternatives. On February 18, 2019, the European Union agreed to impose a cap on commercial truck CO2 emissions, and numerous European countries have introduced incentives to promote electric vehicle sales. Emissions targets in the region remain aggressive in the face of the global pandemic, with heavy-duty vehicles required to reduce emissions by 15% in 2025 and by 30% in 2030. Failure to comply with the 2025 target may result in a fine of up to €38K per vehicle, further incentivizing fleets to transition to electric vehicles.

 

Leading financial and corporate institutions have also committed to environmental sustainability initiatives. A 2021 letter to CEOs from Larry Fink — Chairman and CEO of Blackrock — requested that all boards of directors prepare and disclose a plan to be compatible with a net-zero economy and to commit to launching investment products aligned to a net-zero pathway. Established carriers (such as FedEx, DHL and UPS) and leading last-mile fleets (such as Amazon) announced commitments to explore alternative fuel solutions and reduce their respective carbon footprints. FedEx announced a goal to achieve carbon-neutral operations by 2040 and designated more than $2 billion of initial investment to vehicle electrification, sustainable energy and carbon sequestration. DHL has committed to reduce its emissions by 50% by 2025. It plans to achieve such goal by employing clean pick-up and delivery solutions for 70% of its first- and last-mile operations and further pledged to eliminate all logistics-related emissions by 2050. In 2019 UPS, as a part of its sustainability goals, announced plans to invest $450 million within a three-year period through 2022 to expand its alternative fuel vehicle fleet and infrastructure. In 2019, Amazon co-founded The Climate Pledge — a commitment to achieve company-wide net-zero carbon emissions by 2040.

 

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Our Market Opportunity

 

Our target market, which includes global last-mile Class 5 to 8 vehicle sales (excluding China), accounts for approximately 800,000 annual vehicle sales and a total addressable market of $100 billion, of which $34 billion is attributed to the United States (which reflects an assumed average selling price applied to medium-duty and 20% of heavy-duty commercial truck sales assumed to be used for last-mile applications) in 2021. The global last-mile delivery market is expected to grow to approximately $424 billion by 2030, representing a CAGR of 10% from 2022 to 2030. Same-day delivery is expected to have a 25% market share by 2025. The COVID-19 pandemic accelerated demand in the last-mile segment due to an increase in shipping volumes and consumer expectations for shortened delivery times. To address heightened demand and evolving customer expectations, delivery fulfillment centers continue to be positioned near end customers. The emphasis on fulfillment center proximity to end-use consumers has been a factor in driving an estimated 34% reduction in the average route length since 2000 and an increase in the number of last-mile routes.

 

 

 

We believe the last-mile delivery segment is a prime market for electrification for the following reasons:

 

Technology Alignment. Short- and medium-haul routes better align with the range, weight and charging parameters of battery-electric technology compared to long-haul routes that require increased battery capacities to meet range requirements. Allocating more weight to battery systems in long-haul vehicles in turn reduces payload capacity. Furthermore, short and medium driving distances with frequent stop-and-go duty cycles can increase fuel economy by 30-40% and reduce maintenance costs by up to 30% compared to traditional diesel alternatives. In addition, many short- and medium-haul routes feature diminishing loads in which the vehicle becomes lighter as the route progresses, which in turn extends vehicle range.

 

Infrastructure Capabilities. Our focus on the return-to-base vehicle segment allows us and our customers to deploy charging stations at established local depots rather than route-based charging points. Last-mile vehicles often operate in shifts. Such shift-based operation allows for recharge periods and reduces the need for quick-charge capabilities, which can negatively impact long-term battery health.

 

Battery Range Optimization. Predictable routes allow fleets to optimize for battery range, reduce the overall cost of the vehicle, maximize payload and increase energy efficiency by avoiding unnecessary battery packs to accommodate unforeseen range requirements. Alignment between battery capacity needs and battery system hardware helps improve TCO.

 

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Population Dense Markets. Last-mile routes are typically located in high-density geographies and in closer proximity to end customers. Electric vehicles emit less GHG compared to fossil fuel vehicles, which not only has a positive environmental impact, but also reduces certain health issues associated with air pollutants.

 

Regulatory Support and Market Tailwinds. Ambitious environmental regulations and goals set by financial and corporate institutions are primed to accelerate the shift from diesel and gasoline trucks to electric or other alternative fuel vehicles.

 

We believe that the medium- and heavy-duty last-mile commercial segment remains relatively underserved with many ZEV OEMs focusing on addressing other commercial transportation applications, such as light-duty package cars and long-haul transportation.

 

In addition to the growing market opportunity related to vehicle sales, we anticipate opportunities through our Fleet-as-a-Service product. Our Fleet-as-a-Service package includes products sold at the point-of-sale (“POS”) and recurring aftermarket services. We believe that these complementary product and service offerings have the potential to drive customer retention and recurring revenue. Such offerings are expected to facilitate the transition to electric fleets and vehicle sales to customers who otherwise may not have considered battery-electric fleets. As a result of the foregoing, we believe that we are positioned to become the market leader in the rapidly growing medium- and heavy-duty last mile commercial vehicle market segment through our purpose-built technology, first-mover advantage and our comprehensive Fleet-as-a-Service package.

 

Our Competitive Advantages

 

Prior to starting Xos, our co-founders operated a fleet of commercial vehicles and experienced common challenges in commercial fleet management. Such challenges include rising maintenance expenses, volatile fueling costs and evolving emission regulations. Direct experience as fleet operators enabled our founders to develop a customer-focused company with proprietary technology tailored for commercial fleet applications. Our fleet-focused business is further bolstered by customer feedback and on-the-road validation. We delivered our first fleet vehicle in 2018 and have had production vehicles operating on ordinary business routes with industry-leading commercial fleets such as Loomis.

 

Commercial fleets require attributes that are distinct from passenger cars and light-duty vehicles. Rather than maximizing range and battery volumetric density, medium- and heavy-duty vehicles in the last-mile sector focus on improved gravimetric density to maximize carrying capacity, increased durability to withstand high-impact driving over long periods and low total cost of ownership to maximize profitability. We believe we are a leader in advanced mobility solutions for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles due in part to the following strengths:

 

Proprietary X-Pack battery technology design is modular with commercial grade uptime performance and limited system warranty exposure. Our proprietary modular battery systems are purpose-built for the rigors of the commercial last-mile segment. Each X-Pack features its own battery management system (“BMS”) and operates at system voltage which allows each pack to perform independently and irrespective of other packs on the vehicle. This ensures maximum uptime and limited warranty exposure as defects are localized and isolated from the rest of the vehicle and can be addressed at the pack-level (as opposed to requiring a complete system overhaul). This modularity also provides “cut-to-length” capabilities that allow vehicles to be configured and reconfigured post-delivery with the appropriate amount of range and payload capacity with the simple addition and removal of battery packs. Each Xos vehicle can support multiple X-Packs in single-pack increments to tailor battery needs to each user’s unique range and payload requirements, providing maximum operating flexibility for fleet customers.

 

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Proprietary X-Platform chassis platform adapts to unique specifications and commercial applications. The X-Platform chassis is the foundation of our vehicle products and includes stripped chassis, chassis cab and tractor versions. The X-Platform accommodates a wide range of commercial vehicle bodies, which allows our vehicles to be class, industry and application agnostic. Our universal platform allows us to reduce expenses related to testing, validation and research and development that are normally required to launch new truck variants since our chassis platform is similar across each configuration. Our cross-application approach allows us to offer a wide variety of purpose-built vehicle models, including stepvans, armored stepvans, box trucks, beverage trucks, bucket trucks, and day cabs.

 

Expected industry-leading unsubsidized total cost of ownership addresses fleets’ bottom line. Our core technologies, including the X-Pack and the X-Platform, are developed in-house specifically for the last-mile commercial use case and are modular in nature. As a result, we are able to offer fleets expected industry-leading unsubsidized total cost of ownership relative to traditional diesel, hybrid and zero-emissions alternatives. Our vehicles generally price at a slight premium relative to traditional diesel and hybrid alternatives; however, Xos vehicles feature expected payback periods of less than three years and less than one year in certain use cases. Furthermore, our vehicles are generally priced lower than zero-emission competitors. Although our vehicles often qualify for incentives from government-sponsored sustainable energy programs, the aforementioned projected total cost of ownership figures are calculated on an unsubsidized basis and reflect our ability to maintain a long-term competitive edge.

 

Investment in customer validation and durability testing leads to first-mover advantage. Customer validation and durability testing is essential for electric vehicle manufacturers to participate in the procurement of the world’s largest fleets and can often take over three years. We have tested and validated our vehicles with large-scale multinational fleets for over three years. We are one of the few emerging zero-emission truck OEMs that have vehicles on the road and operating on business routes. We understand the importance of this process and partnered with large-scale national customers early in our development. We aim to continue our capture of market share by contracting with large-scale commercial fleets and through direct customer channels.

 

Flexible manufacturing strategy leveraging smaller more-nimble facilities. We utilize a flexible manufacturing approach that leverages manufacturing partnerships to develop smaller and adaptable facilities relative to the large-scale greenfield manufacturing plants popular amongst traditional automotive manufacturers. Our Flex facilities utilize the existing assembly facilities and labor force of our manufacturing partners and bypass such capital-intensive processes as we enter new markets. Each of our Flex facilities has capacity to manufacture an estimated 5,000 vehicles per year once fully tooled. Each facility’s smaller footprint and our utilization of existing facilities and labor allows us to establish each Flex facility in under one year. We are able to upstart our facilities in lockstep with our order book and address market demand in real-time ahead of competitors with longer lead-time manufacturing strategies. Our nimble Flex facilities can also be strategically positioned in geographies near customers and suppliers — both domestic and international — and reduce logistics complexity and shipping costs.

 

Robust network of strategic partners enables turnkey solutions offering.

 

oSupply Chain: We partner with globalized and diversified supply chain companies to mitigate the risk of localized and single-source production issues for key components such as battery cells, frame components and axles. Our suppliers include LG Chem (providing battery cells from South Korea), Ashok Leyland (providing stamped commodities from India) and TM4 (providing motors and inverters from Canada), among others. Our products use various raw materials including aluminum, steel, cobalt, lithium, nickel and copper. Pricing for these materials is governed by market conditions and may fluctuate due to various factors outside of our control, such as supply and demand and market speculation. We are currently securing all raw materials and components that are either available or becoming available in the global supply chain to support our operations.

 

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oManufacturing: We have established relationships with global and national commercial vehicle manufacturers that provide facilities and labor to assemble our vehicles. Our partners include Metalsa, a worldwide manufacturer of frame and chassis systems for commercial vehicles headquartered in Monterrey, Mexico, and Fitzgerald, the largest manufacturer of glider kits in the United States and partner to our first Flex facility.

 

oVehicle Body: We purchase vehicle bodies, including step-van or “walk-through” bodies, directly from vehicle body outfitters such as Morgan Olson. Such vehicle bodies are designed to fit the specific commercial needs of our customers and are installed directly onto our vehicle platforms at designated body upfit facilities.

 

oDistributors: We work with industry-leading distribution partners, including Thompson Truck Centers, Yancey Bros. Co., and Murphy-Hoffman Company, each of whom has committed to a long-term distribution relationship with Xos.

 

oFinancing: We have partnered with DLL, a leading global vendor finance partner with a portfolio exceeding €30 billion in assets, to facilitate our Xos Financial Services program. Customers will be able to finance their vehicles and certain other Fleet-as-a-Service products through a variety of financial products with partners such as DLL to accommodate their own unique capital needs.

 

oService and Maintenance: We have partnered with Dickinson Fleet Services, a leading provider of fleet maintenance solutions, to provide customers with comprehensive maintenance and after-sales services to ensure maximum uptime and minimal operational disruption. In addition, we partner with our distributor partners for services in their coverage areas.

 

Competitive financing options: Through our financing partners, we offer competitive financing solutions across a wide variety of products to offset our customers’ burden of purchasing vehicles outright and to realize certain cost savings. Financial products offered through our financial partners extend beyond vehicle purchases and support our Fleet-as-a-Service products. Customers are able to access financial tools for charging infrastructure, telematics products and vehicle service and maintenance in a bundled contract at a fixed monthly cost. All financing products are underwritten and supplied by our financing partners.

 

Comprehensive Fleet-as-a-Service drives customer traction and retention: We manufacture next-generation battery-electric vehicles and provide a comprehensive suite of fleet management products. Our Fleet-as-a-Service program will include products related to charging infrastructure, vehicle service and maintenance, customer financing, telematics services, and risk mitigation products. By providing a bundled all-in-one product suite, we will enable fleets to access a comprehensive set of tools needed to transition to electrification and operate electric vehicles through a single point of contact compared to a traditional model in which such offerings are disaggregated.

 

Highly experienced management team complements visionary founders: We have built a world-class team composed of industry leaders with decades of experience from some of the most well-known and highly regarded companies in the advanced mobility and commercial vehicle segments. Such honed experience combined with our founders’ fleet operational professional histories has positioned us to disrupt the incumbent commercial fleet model and capitalize on prime opportunities in the last-mile commercial industry.

 

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Our Go-To-Market Strategy

 

We delivered our first electric commercial vehicle to a globally recognized commercial fleet in 2018 and have made deliveries to a range of customers. Our vehicles have been used in on-road commercial applications on last-mile routes since 2018. We believe our early commitment to confirmation trials and field use places us ahead of most direct competitors with respect to product validation.

 

In addition to large-scale national accounts with major commercial fleet operators, we deliver vehicles directly to small and medium fleets via our in-house sales representatives and established distribution and channel partners. Such accounts include independent service providers (ISPs) who fulfill last-mile routes for enterprise partners. Robust partnerships with established distributors such as Thompson Truck Centers, Yancey Bros. Co. and Murphy-Hoffman Company facilitate sales to direct accounts and offer our Fleet-as-a-Service, such as vehicle financing and extended warranty products, to such commercial fleets.

 

As of December 31, 2021, we have entered into binding agreements and non-binding letters of intent, memorandums of understanding and other similar agreements with various customers. We have delivered 22 vehicles and 22 powertrains for the year-ended December 31, 2021. Our customer base spans a variety of vocational applications and includes large-scale national accounts (such as AB InBev and Loomis); independent service providers (ISPs) for multinational companies (such as FedEx Ground Operators, BQ Express and Patton Logistics); distribution partners (such as Thompson Truck Centers, Yancey Bros. Co., and Murphy-Hoffman Company); and direct accounts (such as Unifirst).

 

We believe that our existing contracted customers will continue to procure our vehicles and account for a meaningful portion of projected vehicle deliveries going forward. We are focused on a diversified customer base and are in current discussions with established and well-known fleets across last-mile delivery, business services, drayage and other vocational industries to continue the growth of our customer base.

 

Our bundled Fleet-as-a-Service under development complements vehicle sales and will drive recurring revenue and customer retention after the initial vehicle sale. Our bundled service offering mitigates barriers to entry for commercial fleet electrification and provides critical infrastructure products, Energy Services, maintenance and service solutions, insurance and warranty packages, financial service options and tailored telematics technologies for purchased and leased vehicles. Our Fleet-as-a-Service allows certain fleet owners to transition to electrification in instances that otherwise would have been cost- or resource-prohibitive.

 

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We aim to leverage opportune sustainability programs in foreign markets to expand our international footprint. We believe our business model enables us to meet international opportunities. Our agile Flex manufacturing strategy facilitates quick adoption in new markets. Our modular X-Platform is broadly adaptable to unique use case specifications in foreign markets. Our global partnership network includes existing footprints in target foreign markets and a multinational blue chip customer portfolio with fleet vehicles operating in international regions. Our expected industry leading unsubsidized total cost of ownership provides low-cost vehicle options even without accounting for region- and country-specific economic incentives. Our honed focus on the last-mile commercial segment further provides a competitive advantage as our products are not dependent on non-existent or underdeveloped long-haul transportation infrastructure in less developed regions.

 

 

 

Our Products and Services

 

We have been committed to advanced mobility solutions for last-mile commercial fleets and innovative approaches to sustainability since our founding in 2015. Our deep-seated expertise and acute fleet operation experience proved critical in the development of our modular X-Platform and Fleet-as-a-Service bundled product offering.

 

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X-Platform (Class 5/6 and Class 7/8):

 

Our proprietary X-Platform is the core modular chassis platform for Xos vehicles. Our cross-application platform features broad deployment capabilities and accommodates a wide range of vehicle bodies and use-case applications. Our X-Platform can accommodate a large number of vehicle bodies and transform into numerous truck variants, including stepvans, armored body vans, box trucks, beverage trucks, and day cabs. The application flexibility afforded by our X-Platform allows us to address a broad range of commercial last-mile applications and target a broad market segment in the commercial transportation industry.

 

 

Fleet-as-a-Service

 

Our Fleet-as-a-Service under development will be a bundled offering that provides customers products and services to assist with fleet operations and the transition to electrification including:

 

Energy Services. A comprehensive energy solution package to facilitate the full life-cycle of the vehicle ownership process. Our services will include installation, configuration and implementation of critical on-site vehicle charging infrastructure. Our products and guidance will provide clients with stable and economic energy solutions through active energy management capabilities and smart-charge technologies. Xos HubTM, our proprietary mobile charging unit deployable for on-demand charging requirements, will offer flexible charging solutions to fleet customers. Such solutions will provide commercial fleet owners a streamlined and cost-efficient avenue to transition to battery-electric vehicles.

 

Service and Maintenance. We provide vehicle service and maintenance to our customers through our own internal mobile maintenance team and in partnership with dealers and Dickinson Fleet Services — a leading national commercial fleet maintenance service provider. Our service and maintenance bundle maximizes vehicle uptime and minimizes operational disruption.

 

Replacement Parts. We partner with authorized service providers to offer customers Xos-certified vehicle components (including the X-Pack). The modular nature of our X-Platform and X-Pack maximizes component utility and increases the number of common parts used across vehicle models. Such approach minimizes complexities related to component part sales and procurement logistics. Certain Xos-certified components are required to maintain compliance with our standard OEM battery and vehicle warranties and preserve vehicle performance and reliability.

 

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Financing. We partner with leading lending institutions to provide a comprehensive suite of financing products (including loans, leases and lines of credit) for customers of our product and services. Financing solutions include the option to bundle both Xos vehicle purchases and Fleet-as-a-Service into a single agreement to provide customers full-service financing at a fixed monthly cost. Such financial products are underwritten and supplied by our financing partners.

 

Risk Products. Risk mitigation products, including GAP insurance, basic extended warranty, and other specialty coverages such as tire and wheel warranty, will be offered in partnership with third-party service providers.

 

Xosphere Intelligence Platform. We currently provide customers with advanced on-board telematics capabilities. Our upcoming Xosphere Intelligence Platform features a telematics unit to enable remote commissioning, remote software updates, remote service assessments, and transmits data to a proprietary cloud-based software system. Our telematics capabilities provide clients real-time systems metrics such as vehicle location, energy consumption, vehicle performance, driver safety and behavior data, dashcam integration and more. Our telematics platform features over-the-air vehicle software updates to provide customers rapid access to enhanced software features. The Xosphere Intelligence Platform provides customers with advanced vehicle technology that facilitates cost reduction (e.g., lower insurance premiums through driver safety programs) and increases fleet efficiency (e.g. increased vehicle uptime).

 

 

 

Our Proprietary Technologies

 

We developed proprietary technologies central to our vehicles and service offerings, including the X-Pack advanced battery pack systems, X-Platform modular vehicle chassis platform, next-generation vehicle software and our Xosphere Intelligence Platform.

 

X-Pack Battery

 

We have the ability to design and engineer battery systems internally, as well as the flexibility to integrate battery systems or components from partners. We have developed proprietary battery technology, engineered from the cell-up and purpose-built for the last-mile commercial use case. Our Xos battery packs feature “cut-to-length” modular architecture to provide flexibility and meet each customer’s unique range and payload capacity needs.

 

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We began the production of the Lyra Series of battery packs to be installed on new Xos vehicles beginning in the fourth quarter of 2021. The Lyra series of battery packs features a 52% improvement in gravimetric energy density and a 45% improvement in volumetric energy density from prior Xos battery systems, and is compatible with all Xos on-highway vehicles. The battery packs come in two configurations: Lyra 30 (29.4kWh) and Lyra 60 (61.8kWh) offering 25 and 50 miles of range, respectively. Each pack features individual, recirculated air cooling and an independent battery management system, offering improved reliability and the ability to mix-and-match packs to cater to each customer’s unique range requirements.

 

X-Platform Chassis

 

The X-Platform chassis was built and designed specifically for last-mile commercial use. The X-Platform is the foundation for Xos vehicle products, including our stripped chassis, chassis cab and tractor vehicles. Our modular proprietary chassis accommodates a wide range of commercial use applications and vehicle body upfits. Such modularity provides us with a competitive advantage in the commercial transportation sector in which commercial fleet operators deploy vehicles across an array of use-applications and environments.

 

Each X-Platform is able to accommodate a sufficient number of X-Packs to provide over 200 miles of range across our current vehicle product variants. Our vehicle range capability allows Xos vehicles to meet the demands of rigorous last-mile routes. Each X-Platform is constructed with high-strength steel and provides enhanced durability relative to other options on the market.

 

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Vehicle Control Software

 

We designed and developed on-board vehicle control software which leverages basic third-party software and integrates our proprietary powertrain controls, body controls, instrument cluster and infotainment and Xos-Connect software.

 

Powertrain controls. We developed our powertrain controls, which include, but are not limited to, torque arbitration and power state management, thermal management for our powertrain and high-voltage battery systems, advanced driver assistance and safety (ADAS) and charging system communication and controls.

 

Body controls. We developed our body controls, which include cabin heater and air conditioning, shifter communication, power steering control, electronic parking brake system and certain other software critical to vehicle controls.

 

Instrument cluster and infotainment. We designed a fully digital instrument cluster specifically for last-mile commercial electric vehicles. Our custom user interface integrates into all Xos vehicles and is designed to enhance safe vehicle operation and provide critical safety information and driver efficiency guidance.

 

Xos-Connect software. Our proprietary software connects directly with our vehicles to track telematics data. The software also contains connection modules that feature over-the-air update capabilities through our cloud intelligence platform and allow for remote diagnostics and maintenance services.

 

Xosphere Intelligence Platform

 

We are designing and developing the Xosphere Intelligence Platform — our customer-facing fleet operations platform — for commercial fleets with last-mile battery-electric vehicles. Our platform is designed to be an all-in-one vehicle control center. The Xosphere Intelligence Platform will provide vehicle telematics data, such as real-time location, driver performance, vehicle alerts, dashcam integration, battery capacity, energy consumption, fuel cost savings and environmental impact.

 

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In addition to vehicle performance, the Xosphere Intelligence Platform will integrate with third-party systems for service and maintenance, financing, and certain other commercial vehicle applications, providing fleet operators with comprehensive data and analysis to increase operational efficiencies and reduce operating costs.

 

 

 

Flex Manufacturing

 

We have taken a conservative approach to capital investment with our Flex manufacturing strategy.

 

Our agile Flex manufacturing strategy leverages existing facilities and labor talent through strategic manufacturing partnerships. Such approach allows us to assemble vehicles in a more time- and capital-efficient manner relative to traditional, large-scale automotive assembly factories. Each Xos Flex facility is designed to produce up to 5,000 vehicles per year once fully tooled. Our facilities will host their own co-located battery and vehicle assembly lines and assemble fully operational vehicles to be directly delivered to customers or final body upfitters. Our Flex manufacturing approach is structured such that manufacturing partners provide real property facilities and vehicle assembly services while we coordinate other aspects of the manufacturing process, including supply chain logistics, battery assembly and manufacturing engineering.

 

Each of our Flex manufacturing facilities will require an estimated $45 million in capital expenditure — approximately 80% less than a traditional large-scale automotive manufacturing facility. Our Flex facilities are operational as quickly as within one year, an estimated two to three years quicker than construction and completion of traditional greenfield automotive factories. Furthermore, our factory management system and line design require a real estate footprint as small as 150,000 square feet — a footprint more than approximately 90% smaller than traditional automotive assembly facilities.

 

Our strategic approach to agile manufacturing facilities and shortened production timelines allow us to meet demand in real-time and more quickly than competitors. Our nimble facilities also allow us to establish production facilities in close proximity to customers and body upfitters, which in turn reduces delivery logistics and shipping expenses.

 

Due to the X-Platform proprietary design, our assembly lines require no on-site stamping or certain other processes and equipment that typically drive up the cost of traditional automotive assembly. Each assembly line can also accommodate various Xos vehicle products as opposed to being limited and designed for single product use.

 

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As of December 31, 2021, we have two Flex facilities operating and producing our vehicles. Our first facility was launched in partnership with Fitzgerald, the largest manufacturer of glider vehicles in the United States, which at one point produced over 5,000 tractor trucks per year. The facility is strategically located in Byrdstown, Tennessee near Morgan Olson, a provider of stepvan vehicle bodies for over 100 years and the preferred provider of a number of our customers. We also assemble vehicles with Metalsa, a global manufacturer of frame and chassis systems for commercial vehicles headquartered in Monterrey, Mexico. Metalsa features facilities across the globe with capacity to manufacture vehicles in our target international markets.

 

Our Growth Strategy

 

We intend to leverage our competitive advantages and the following growth strategies to remain a leader in intelligent mobility solutions:

 

Capitalize on increasing regulatory pressure and customer demand for zero-emission vehicles. Commercial trucks in the United States emit as much GHG as passenger cars, producing over 750 million tons of GHG in the United States annually, despite traveling 45% fewer miles than passenger cars. U.S. federal, state and local regulations have required transitions to clean transportation solutions. In addition, approximately 20 countries have committed to the reduction of phase fossil fuel use in vehicles by 2040. We are prepared to capitalize on such regulatory tailwinds globally.

 

Focus on land-and-expand strategy. We have built strong customer relationships. All customers with Xos vehicles in their fleets for over one year have committed to binding or non-binding follow-on orders underscoring the efficacy of our next-generation vehicle technologies. We continue to develop long-term relationships with our established customer base and anticipate higher volume vehicles orders as each transitions to net-carbon neutral fleet programs.

 

Acquisition of new customers. By leveraging existing strategic partnerships, including Thompson Truck Centers, Yancey Bros. Co., and Murphy-Hoffman Company, we expect to broaden our customer base and expand into new markets. We expect to capture new fleet customers through our attractive value propositions, advanced vehicle technologies and bundled Fleet-as-a-Service package.

 

International expansion. We have the ability to expand internationally in a capital efficient manner due in part to the modularity of our broad X-Platform and X-Pack battery system applications and agile Flex manufacturing approach. We are currently in discussions with numerous fleets in Canada, Europe and South America. We also intend to leverage the international footprint of our existing global customers to cross-sell to foreign markets.

 

Opportunistic strategic acquisitions. We may pursue strategic acquisitions to accelerate our growth plans and supplement our existing product and service offerings.

 

Intellectual Property

 

Our ability to protect our material intellectual property is important to our business. We rely upon a combination of protections afforded to owners of patents, copyrights, trade secrets, and trademarks, along with employee and third-party non-disclosure agreements and other contractual restrictions to establish and protect our intellectual property rights. In particular, unpatented trade secrets in the fields of research, development and engineering are an important aspect of our business by ensuring that our technology remains confidential. We also pursue patent protection when we believe we have developed a patentable invention and the benefits of obtaining a patent outweigh the risks of making the invention public through patent filings.

 

As of December 31, 2021, we had 5 awarded U.S. patents. We pursue the registration of our domain names and material trademarks and service marks in the United States. In an effort to protect our brand, as of December 31, 2021, we had 22 pending or approved U.S. trademark applications.

 

We regularly review our development efforts to assess the existence and patentability of new inventions, and we are prepared to file additional patent applications when we determine it would benefit our business to do so.

 

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Facilities

 

Our headquarters are located in an 85,142 square foot facility in Los Angeles, California, where we design, engineer and develop our vehicles and battery packs. We entered a new lease agreement for the facility with the landlord in August 2021. The new lease commenced on January 1, 2022 and will terminate pursuant to its terms on January 31, 2027, unless amended and/or extended.

 

In addition to our headquarter location, we have short-term leases in North Hollywood, California and Beaverton, Oregon to support our operations.

 

Human Capital

 

People Strategy and Governance

 

We firmly believe an integral part of our growth story is through elevating the most important asset we have: our people. By focusing on the fundamentals of our people strategy, leadership, culture and talent, we remain strong, adaptive, innovative, and well-equipped to respond to the ever-changing commercial vehicle landscape. Our Employee Experience Team and Sustainability and Innovation Committee are and will be responsible for our human capital policies and strategies and their collective recommendations to our CEO and key leadership members allow us to proactively manage our human capital and care for our employees in a manner that is consistent with our values.

 

Commitment to Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion

 

At Xos, we believe that creating an inclusive environment for all our employees is foundational to our success and, more importantly, morally the right thing to do. One of our organizational values is “One team: Be actively inclusive. Embrace diversity. Support and celebrate others.” We are committed to creating and maintaining a workplace in which all employees have an opportunity to participate and contribute to the success of our business and are valued for their skills, experience, and unique perspectives.

 

We administer Employee Resource Groups that represent various dimensions of our employee population, including racial, ethnic, gender, religious, and generational communities, as well as provide training materials to team leaders on inclusive leadership. These groups provide a place for employees of diverse backgrounds to find belonging at Xos in addition to helping all employees learn about experiences that differ from their own.

 

Talent Attraction, Growth, and Capability Assessment

 

We leverage best practices in assessments and talent management to strengthen and expand our current capabilities and future pipeline while reinforcing a culture of belonging, empowerment, and innovation. We also create targeted learning experiences, democratizing learning and career development opportunities across the organization, and empowering employees to design their own career paths with skill development targeted for the roles of today and the future.

 

The extent to which our leaders are equipped to care for, inspire, and empower our people plays a vital role in our strategy. Our set of leadership habits outlines clear expectations for our leaders: that they regularly connect with team members, spend time teaching and coaching, and champion their team’s career development. We are committed to helping our leaders strengthen these capabilities with dedicated learning paths and non-traditional learning opportunities.

 

Employee Well-being Initiatives

 

Our holistic approach to well-being encompasses the financial, social, mental/emotional, physical, and professional needs of our employees. Foundational to our well-being philosophy is providing a broad array of resources and solutions to educate employees and build capability and support for meeting individual well-being needs and goals. These initiatives include financial seminars, weekly mindfulness sessions, an on-site gym, and healthy food in our kitchens.

 

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We employ programs to understand employee sentiment on their mental and emotional well-being, health & safety, employee experience, culture, diversity, equity and inclusion, leadership and strategic alignment. Weekly check-ins gather pulse scores and employee feedback on those topics. Suggestion boxes and focus groups collect additional information on employee sentiment and needs, and we communicate the resulting actions taken with our employee population.

 

Our well-being programs are an integral part of our total rewards strategy as we work to address business and employee challenges through a multi-channel approach that provides our diverse populations and global regions flexibility and choices to meet their specific needs.

 

Employment Data

 

As of December 31, 2021, we had 289 full-time employees, 35 contractors and 5 interns. We have not experienced any work stoppages and consider our relationship with our employees to be good. None of our employees are subject to a collective bargaining agreement or represented by a labor union.

 

Government Regulations

 

We operate in an industry that is subject to extensive environmental regulation, which has become more stringent over time. The laws and regulations to which we are subject govern, among others, vehicle emissions and the storage, handling, treatment, transportation and disposal of hazardous materials and the remediation of environmental contamination. Compliance with such laws and regulations at an international, regional, national, provincial and local level is an important aspect of our ability to continue our operations.

 

Environmental standards applicable to us are established by the laws and regulations of the countries in which we operate, standards adopted by regulatory agencies and the permits and licenses issued to us. Each of these sources is subject to periodic modifications and what we anticipate will be increasingly stringent requirements. Violations of these laws, regulations or permits and licenses may result in substantial administrative, civil or even criminal fines, penalties, and possibly orders to cease any violating operations or to conduct or pay for corrective works. In some instances, violations may also result in the suspension or revocation of permits or licenses.

 

Emissions

 

California has greenhouse gas emissions standards that closely follow the standards of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The registration and sale of ZEVs in California could earn us ZEV credits that we could in turn sell to traditional original equipment manufacturers (“OEMs”) looking to offset emissions from their traditional internal combustion engine vehicles in order to meet California’s emissions regulations. Other U.S. states have adopted similar standards including Colorado, Connecticut, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, Rhode Island and Vermont. We may take advantage of these regimes by registering and selling ZEVs in these other U.S. states.

 

ZEV credits in California are calculated under the ZEV regulation and are paid in relation to ZEVs sold and registered in California including battery electric vehicles (“BEVs”) and fuel cell electric vehicles (“FCEVs”). The ZEV program assigns ZEV credits to each vehicle manufacturer. Vehicle manufacturers are required to maintain ZEV credits equal to a set percentage of non-electric vehicles sold and registered in California. Each vehicle sold and registered in California earns a number of credits based on the drivetrain type and the all-electric range (“AER”) of the vehicle under the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule Test Cycle.

 

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EPA Emissions and Certificate of Conformity

 

The U.S. Clean Air Act requires that we obtain a Certificate of Conformity issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) or a California Executive Order issued by the California Air Resources Board (“CARB”) certifying that its vehicles comply with all applicable emissions requirements. A Certificate of Conformity is required for vehicles sold in states covered by the Clean Air Act’s standards or a CARB Executive Order is required for vehicles sold in states that have adopted California’s stricter standards for emissions controls related to new vehicles and engines sold in such states. States that have adopted the California standards as approved by EPA also recognize the CARB Executive Order for sales of vehicles. In addition to California, there are 13 other states which have either adopted or are in the process of adopting the stricter California standards, including New York, Massachusetts, Vermont, Maine, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Washington, Oregon, New Jersey, Maryland, Delaware and Colorado.

 

Although our vehicles have zero-emissions, we are required to seek an EPA Certificate of Conformity for vehicles sold in states covered by the Clean Air Act’s standards or a CARB Executive Order for vehicles sold in California or any of the other 13 states identified above that have adopted the stricter California standards.

 

Vehicle Safety and Testing

 

Our vehicles are subject to, and are required to comply with, the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act, as amended, and numerous regulatory requirements established by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (“NHTSA”), an operating administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation, including applicable U.S. federal motor vehicle safety standards (“FMVSS”). We expect our vehicles to either meet or otherwise be exempt from all applicable FMVSS. Additionally, there are regulatory changes being considered for several FMVSSs, and while we anticipate being in compliance with the proposed changes, there is no assurance until final regulation changes are enacted.

 

As a U.S.-based manufacturer, we must self-certify that our vehicles meet all applicable FMVSSs, as well as the NHTSA bumper standard, or otherwise are exempt, before the vehicles can be imported or sold in the United States. Numerous FMVSSs apply to our vehicles, such as crash-worthiness requirements, crash avoidance requirements and EV-specific requirements. We will also be required to comply with other federal laws and regulations administered by NHTSA.

 

As we expand our offerings outside of the United States, our vehicles will be subject to foreign safety, environmental and other regulations. Many of those regulations are different from those applicable in the United States and may require redesign and/or retesting.

 

Battery Safety and Testing Regulation

 

Our battery packs are required to conform to mandatory regulations that govern transport of “dangerous goods,” defined to include lithium-ion batteries, which may present a risk in transportation. The governing regulations, which are issued by the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, are based on the UN Recommendations on the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods Model Regulations and related UN Manual Tests and Criteria. The regulations vary by mode of shipping transportation, such as by ocean vessel, rail, truck or air. We use lithium-ion cells in the high voltage battery packs in our vehicles. The use, storage, and disposal of our battery packs is regulated under U.S. federal law.

 

Competition

 

We have experienced, and expect to continue to experience, intense competition from a number of companies, particularly as the commercial transportation sector increasingly shifts towards low-emission, zero-emission or carbon neutral solutions. Existing commercial diesel vehicle OEMs, such as Daimler, Ford, General Motors, Navistar, Paccar, Shyft Group, and Volvo, maintain the largest market shares in the sector.

 

In addition to competition from traditional diesel OEMs, we face competition from disruptive vehicle manufacturers that are developing alternative fuel and electric commercial vehicles, such as Nikola, Arrival, Rivian, Workhorse, BYD Motors, The Lion Electric Company, and Proterra.

 

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We take a hybrid approach to the development of customers based on the size of their fleets. Our client base includes small (<20 vehicles), medium- (20-100 vehicles), and large (>100 vehicles) fleet owners and operators. Many large fleets have clearly defined fleet procurement divisions, which allows us to more easily identify decision-makers using a smaller sales force. Implementation of our vehicles into large national fleets also validates our vehicle products for small and medium fleet operators. However, large national fleets tend to have long sales cycles and pursue a phased approach to new vehicle implementation. Most sizeable fleet operators are in the early stages of adoption of commercial electric vehicle solutions. One approach taken by such fleets, including operators who have publicly announced their intention to electrify their fleets, is to test multiple commercial electric vehicle alternatives. In such a competitive landscape, we believe our proven advantages, including our industry-leading total cost of ownership, will enable our vehicles to out-compete other electric vehicles in such trials.

 

Small and medium fleets often have more streamlined fleet purchase processes than large fleet operators and fewer requests for tailor-made product specifications. We are often able to more quickly engage and complete vehicle sales cycles with such clients. Many small and medium fleets have different vehicle use cases than large fleets, and such companies provide us valuable feedback for product development purposes.

 

We believe the primary competitive factors in the commercial vehicle market for medium- and heavy-duty last-mile and return-to-base segments include, but are not limited to:

 

total cost of ownership;

 

emissions profile;

 

effectiveness within target applications and use cases;

 

ease of integration into existing operations;

 

product performance and uptime;

 

vehicle quality, reliability and safety;

 

vehicle service and support;

 

technological innovation specifically around battery, software and data analytics; and

 

fleet management

 

We believe that we compete favorably with our competitors on the basis of these factors; however, most of our current and potential competitors have greater financial, technical, manufacturing, marketing and other resources than us. Our competitors may be able to deploy greater resources to the design, development, manufacturing, distribution, promotion, sales, marketing and support of their alternative fuel and electric vehicle programs. Additionally, some of our competitors also have greater name recognition, longer operating histories, larger sales forces, broader customer and industry relationships and other greater tangible and intangible resources than us. These competitors also compete with us in recruiting and retaining qualified research and development, sales, marketing and management personnel, as well as in acquiring technologies complementary to, or necessary for, our products. Additional mergers and acquisitions may result in even more resources being concentrated in our competitors.

 

Legal Proceedings

 

From time to time, we may become involved in legal proceedings or be subject to claims arising in the ordinary course of our business. We are not currently a party to any legal proceedings, the outcome of which, if determined adversely to us, would individually or in the aggregate have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

 

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MANAGEMENT

 

Executive Officers and Directors

 

The following table sets forth the name, age and position of each of our directors and executive officers as of March 1, 2022:

 

Name

  Age   Position
Executive Officers        
Dakota Semler   30   Chief Executive Officer, Chairman
Giordano Sordoni   30   Chief Operating Officer, Director
Robert Ferber   53   Chief Technology Officer
Kingsley Afemikhe   38   Chief Financial Officer
Christen Romero   36   General Counsel
Jose Castañeda   41   Vice President of Business Development
Non-Employee Directors        
Anousheh Ansari(2)(3)   55   Director
Alice K. Jackson(1)(3)   43   Director
Burt Jordan(2)(3)   55   Director
S. Sara Mathew(1)(2)   66   Director
George N. Mattson(1)(2)(3)   55   Director
Ed Rapp(1)(2)   64   Director

 

 

(1)Member of our audit committee.
(2)Member of our compensation committee.
(3)Member of our nominating and corporate governance committee.

 

Executive Officers

 

Dakota Semler. Mr. Semler has served as our Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of our Board of Directors (the “Board”) since August 2021. Mr. Semler is a Co-Founder of Xos and served as Chief Executive Officer and a director of Legacy Xos from September 2016 to August 2021. Prior to Xos, Mr. Semler served as Chief Executive Officer of Malibu Management Services, a hospitality operator and Bucket List Experiences, a tour operator company from 2014 to 2016. Mr. Semler was also an independent contractor for TSG Group, a real estate holding company, from 2014 to 2016. Mr. Semler attended California State University and George Washington University.

 

Giordano Sordoni. Mr. Sordoni has served as our Chief Operating Officer and a member of our Board since August 2021. Mr. Sordoni is a Co-Founder of Xos and served as Chief Operating Officer and a director of Legacy Xos from September 2016 to August 2021. Prior to Xos, Mr. Sordoni served as Co-Founder at Calibur Inc., a startup consulting business, advising early-stage businesses, from August 2015 to August 2016. Mr. Sordoni was Director of Marketing at Malibu Family Wines, a wine production company, from July 2014 to June 2016. Mr. Sordoni holds a B.A. in International Business and Marketing from George Washington University.

 

Robert Ferber. Mr. Ferber has served as our Chief Technology Officer since August 2021. Mr. Ferber served as Chief Technology Officer of Legacy Xos from April 2019 to August 2021. Prior to Xos, Mr. Ferber served in multiple roles at Virgin Hyperloop One, a transportation technology company, from November 2016 to November 2018, including Vice President, Chief Engineer. Mr. Ferber was Chief Technology Officer at KLD Energy Technologies, an electric vehicle propulsion company, from March 2009 to February 2016 and Chief Executive Officer of ElectronVault, a battery systems company, from January 2005 to April 2017. Mr. Ferber also served as Science Director at Tesla, an electric vehicle company, from September 2003 to November 2004. Prior to completing his B.S. at the California Institute of Technology, Mr. Ferber was directly admitted to the Ph.D. program at the California Institute of Technology, but later joined eToys, an Idealab company, as Chief Technical Officer prior to completion of his degree.

 

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Kingsley Afemikhe. Mr. Afemikhe has served as our Chief Financial Officer since August 2021. Mr. Afemikhe served as Chief Financial Officer of Legacy Xos from July 2020 to August 2021. Prior to Xos, Mr. Afemikhe led Strategy and M&A at MET Group, an integrated energy company, with operations in infrastructure assets, energy sales, and commodity wholesale and trading from June 2017 to July 2019. Previously, Mr. Afemikhe was at UBS, an investment bank, from October 2007 to January 2017 where he served in a variety of positions before becoming Executive Director of EMEA Investment Banking, and prior to that worked at Deutsche Bank, an investment bank, in the same role. Mr. Afemikhe holds a Master of Engineering in Chemical Engineering with Business Management from the University of Birmingham and a Master of Science in Management for Experienced Leaders from the Stanford University Graduate School of Business (where he was a Robert Joss Scholar).

 

Christen Romero. Mr. Romero has served as our General Counsel since August 2021. Mr. Romero served as Senior Commercial Counsel of Legacy Xos from December 2020 to August 2021. Prior to Xos, Mr. Romero was the Co-Founder, Lead Counsel and Director of Operations for Revolving Kitchen, a cloud kitchen lease and incubation concept, from April 2018 to July 2021. Previously, Mr. Romero was a corporate associate at Vinson & Elkins LLP from August 2014 to April 2018. Mr. Romero holds a Bachelor of Arts in Political Science from Louisiana State University and a Juris Doctor from Yale Law School.

 

Jose Castañeda. Mr. Castañeda has served as our Vice President of Business Development since August 2021. Mr. Castañeda served as Vice President of Business Development of Legacy Xos from April 2020 to August 2021. Mr. Castañeda has also served as an Advisor and Investor to Lane Capital since September 2021 and served as an Advisor and Investor to Build Capital Partners from September 2020 to August 2021. Prior to Xos, Mr. Castañeda served as the Vice President Sales and Marketing at VIAIR Corporation, a manufacturer of air compressors and accessories. From September 2017 to June 2018, Mr. Castañeda served as the GM North America Aftermarket & Global Performance of Honeywell. Mr. Castañeda also served in various roles at Cummins Inc. from June 2010 to September 2017, most recently as the Director of Marketing and Business Development. Mr. Castañeda holds a Bachelor of Arts in Political Science from Southern Methodist University and a Master of Business Administration from Thunderbird School of Global Management.

 

Non-Employee Directors

 

Anousheh Ansari. Ms. Ansari has served as member of our Board since December 17, 2021. Ms. Ansari has served as director of Jabil Inc., a leading provider of worldwide manufacturing services and solutions, since January 2016. Ms. Ansari has served on the Board of Sceye Inc. since 2016. Sceye is building a platform for a leading new generation of high-altitude platform stations, or HAPS. In 2018, Ms. Ansari was appointed Chief Executive Officer of X PRIZE Foundation, Inc., a 501(c)(3) nonprofit that designs and implements competition models to solve world challenges. From 2006 to 2018, Ms. Ansari served as the Chief Executive Officer and the Chair of Prodea Systems, Inc., a privately held company that she co-founded, which provides services and applications for in-home smart devices, networked appliances, and mobile lifestyle devices. Prior to Prodea, she co-founded Telecom Technologies, Inc., a company developing software for intelligent systems for the telecommunications market. Ms. Ansari was the first female private space explorer. Ms. Ansari holds a B.S. in Electronics and Computer Engineering from George Mason University and a Master’s Degree in Electrical Engineering from George Washington University. She also holds honorary Doctorate degrees from George Mason University and Utah Valley University.

 

Alice K. Jackson. Ms. Jackson has served as a member of our Board since December 17, 2021. Ms. Jackson has served as President of Colorado at Xcel Energy Inc., a major U.S. electricity and natural gas company, since May 2018. From September 2016 to May 2018, she served as Associate Vice President of Strategic Revenue Initiatives at Xcel Energy. Ms. Jackson is Chair of the Board of Directors of the Smart Electric Power Alliance, and sits on the boards of the Denver Museum of Nature and Science, Mile High United Way, Denver Metro Chamber of Commerce, Colorado Concern, and the American Red Cross CO/WY Chapter. Ms. Jackson received a B.S. in Management Information Systems from Texas A&M University and completed the Harvard Business School Program for Leadership Development.

 

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Burt R. Jordan. Mr. Jordan has served as the President and a director of Atlantic Coastal Acquisition Corp. since December 2020. Mr. Jordan has also served as a director of ABC Technologies inc. since November 2021. Previously, Mr. Jordan served as an executive at Ford Motor Company from 1999 until 2020, where he most recently served as Vice President of Global Purchasing Operations and Supply Chain Sustainability. In this role, Mr. Jordan drove strategy transformation, growth and efficiencies through program delivery, purchasing strategy and supply chain sustainability. In June 2020, Mr. Jordan was named the 2020 Chief Procurement Officer of the Year by the National Minority Supplier Development Council.

 

S. Sara Mathew. Ms. Mathew has served as a member of our Board since August 2021. Ms. Mathew has been a director of NextGen since October 2020. Ms. Mathew was Chair and Chief Executive Officer of Dun & Bradstreet Corporation from 2010 to 2013. In this role, she led the transformation of the company into an innovative digital enterprise. Prior to her role as Chair and Chief Executive Officer, she also served as President and Chief Operating Officer, and Chief Financial Officer where she initiated and managed the redesign of the company’s accounting processes and controls. Prior to her career at Dun & Bradstreet Corporation, Ms. Mathew spent 18 years at Procter & Gamble serving as CFO of the Baby Care and Pamper Products businesses and Vice President of Finance in Asia. Previously, Ms. Mathew previously served on the boards of Shire Pharmaceuticals Limited, Campbell Soup Company, Avon and Reckitt Benckiser Group. Ms. Mathew is currently serving as a director of the State Street Corporation, and as the chair of the board of directors of Freddie Mac. Ms. Mathew received her undergraduate degree from the University of Madras in Chennai, India and holds an M.B.A. in Marketing and Finance from Xavier University in Cincinnati, Ohio.

 

George N. Mattson. Mr. Mattson has served as a member of our Board since August 2021. Mr. Mattson has been a director of NextGen since October 2020. Mr. Mattson served as a Partner and Co-Head of the Global Industrials Group in Investment Banking at Goldman, Sachs & Co. from November 2002 through August 2012. Mr. Mattson joined Goldman Sachs in 1994 and served in a variety of positions before becoming Partner and Co-Head of the Global Industrials Group. Mr. Mattson serves as a director of Delta Air Lines, Inc. (NYSE: DAL), where he is chair of the Finance Committee, Virgin Galactic Holdings, Inc. (NYSE: SPCE), where he is chair of the Audit Committee, and Virgin Orbit Holdings, Inc. (Nasdaq: VORB). Mr. Mattson also served as a director of Air France-KLM S.A. (PAR: AF) from 2017 until February 2021 and NextGen Acquisition Corp II from January 2021 to December 2021. Mr. Mattson holds a B.S. degree in Electrical Engineering from Duke University and an M.B.A. from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania.

 

Ed Rapp. Mr. Rapp has served as a member of our Board since August 2021. Prior to his retirement in 2016, Mr. Rapp was a Caterpillar Inc. Group President. During his time in the Caterpillar Executive Office, he led Resource Industries, Construction Industries and was the company’s CFO. Mr. Rapp serves as a director of AbbVie and previously served as a director of FM Global. Mr. Rapp holds a BSBA in Finance from University of Missouri — Columbia.

 

Board Composition

 

Our business and affairs are organized under the direction of our Board. The primary responsibilities of our Board is to provide oversight, strategic guidance, counseling and direction to our management. Our Board meets on a regular basis and additionally as required.

 

In accordance with the terms of our Certificate of Incorporation, our Board is divided into three classes: Class I, Class II and Class III, with only one class of directors being elected in each year and each class serving a three-year term, the Class I directors will be elected to an initial one-year term (and three-year terms subsequently), the Class II directors will be elected to an initial two-year term (and three-year terms subsequently) and the Class III directors will be elected to an initial three-year term (and three-year terms subsequently). There is no cumulative voting with respect to the election of directors, with the result that the holders of more than 50% of the shares voted for the election of directors can elect all of the directors.

 

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Our Board is divided into the following classes:

 

Class I, which consists of Burt Jordan and Ed Rapp, whose terms will expire at our first annual meeting of stockholders to be held in 2022

 

Class II, which consists of Alice K. Jackson, George Mattson, Giordano Sordoni, whose terms will expire at our second annual meeting of stockholders to be held in 2023; and

 

Class III, which consists of Anousheh Ansari, S. Sara Mathew, and Dakota Semler, whose terms will expire at our third annual meeting of stockholders to be held in 2024.

 

At each annual meeting of stockholders to be held after the initial classification, the successors to directors whose terms then expire will be elected to serve from the time of election and qualification until the third annual meeting following their election and until their successors are duly elected and qualified. This classification of our Board may have the effect of delaying or preventing changes in our control or management. Our directors may be removed for cause by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least a majority of our voting stock.

 

Director Independence

 

Each of the directors on our Board other than Dakota Semler and Giordano Sordoni qualifies as an independent director, as defined under the listing rules of The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC (the “Nasdaq listing rules”), and our Board consists of a majority of “independent directors,” as defined under the rules of the SEC and Nasdaq listing rules relating to director independence requirements. In addition, we are be subject to the rules of the SEC and Nasdaq relating to the membership, qualifications and operations of the audit committee, as discussed below.

 

Role of the Board in Risk Oversight/Risk Committee

 

One of the key functions of our Board is informed oversight of our risk management process. Our Board does not have a standing risk management committee, but rather administers this oversight function directly through our Board as a whole, as well as through various standing committees of our Board that address risks inherent in their respective areas of oversight. In particular, our Board is responsible for monitoring and assessing strategic risk exposure and our audit committee has the responsibility to consider and discuss our major financial risk exposures and the steps management will take to monitor and control such exposures, including guidelines and policies to govern the process by which risk assessment and management is undertaken. The audit committee also monitors compliance with legal and regulatory requirements. Our compensation committee assesses and monitors whether our compensation plans, policies and programs comply with applicable legal and regulatory requirements.

 

Board Committees

 

Our Board established an audit committee, a compensation committee and a nominating and corporate governance committee. Our Board adopted a charter for each of these committees, which complies with the applicable requirements of current Nasdaq rules. We will comply with future requirements to the extent they will be applicable to us. Copies of the charters for each committee are available on the investor relations portion of our website.

 

Audit Committee

 

Our audit committee consists of Ed Rapp, Alice K. Jackson, S. Sara Mathew and George Mattson. Our Board determined that each of the members of the audit committee satisfies the independence requirements of Nasdaq and Rule 10A-3 under the Exchange Act. Each member of the audit committee can read and understand fundamental financial statements in accordance with Nasdaq audit committee requirements. In arriving at this determination, our Board examined each audit committee member’s scope of experience and the nature of their prior and/or current employment.

 

Mr. Rapp serves as the chair of the audit committee. Our Board determined that Mr. Rapp and Ms. Mathew qualify as audit committee financial experts within the meaning of SEC regulations and meet the financial sophistication requirements of Nasdaq listing rules. In making this determination, our Board considered Mr. Rapp and Ms. Mathew’s formal education and previous experience in financial roles. Both our independent auditors and management periodically meet privately with our audit committee.

 

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The functions of this committee include, among other things:

 

evaluating the performance, independence and qualifications of our independent auditors and determining whether to retain our existing independent auditors or engage new independent auditors;

 

reviewing our financial reporting processes and disclosure controls;

 

reviewing and approving the engagement of our independent auditors to perform audit services and any permissible non-audit services;

 

reviewing the adequacy and effectiveness of our internal control policies and procedures, including the responsibilities, budget, staffing and effectiveness of our internal audit function;

 

reviewing with the independent auditors the annual audit plan, including the scope of audit activities and all critical accounting policies and practices to be used by us;

 

obtaining and reviewing at least annually a report by our independent auditors describing the independent auditors’ internal quality control procedures and any material issues raised by the most recent internal quality-control review;

 

monitoring the rotation of partners of our independent auditors on our engagement team as required by law;

 

prior to engagement of any independent auditor, and at least annually thereafter, reviewing relationships that may reasonably be thought to bear on their independence, and assessing and otherwise taking the appropriate action to oversee the independence of our independent auditor;

 

reviewing our annual and quarterly financial statements and reports, including the disclosures contained in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and discussing the statements and reports with our independent auditors and management;

 

reviewing with our independent auditors and management significant issues that arise regarding accounting principles and financial statement presentation and matters concerning the scope, adequacy and effectiveness of our financial controls and critical accounting policies;

 

reviewing with management and our auditors any earnings announcements and other public announcements regarding material developments;

 

establishing procedures for the receipt, retention and treatment of complaints received by us regarding financial controls, accounting, auditing or other matters;

 

preparing the report that the SEC requires in our annual proxy statement;

 

reviewing and providing oversight of any related party transactions in accordance with our related party transaction policy and reviewing and monitoring compliance with legal and regulatory responsibilities, including our code of ethics;

 

reviewing our major financial risk exposures, including the guidelines and policies to govern the process by which risk assessment and risk management is implemented; and

 

reviewing and evaluating on an annual basis the performance of the audit committee and the audit committee charter.

 

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The composition and function of our audit committee comply with all applicable requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, SEC rules and regulations and Nasdaq listing rules. We will comply with future requirements to the extent they become applicable to us.

 

Compensation Committee

 

Our compensation committee consists of S. Sara Mathew, Anousheh Ansari, Burt Jordan, George Mattson and Ed Rapp. Ms. Mathew serves as the chair of the compensation committee. Our Board has determined that each of the members of the compensation committee will be a non-employee director, as defined in Rule 16b-3 promulgated under the Exchange Act and will satisfy the independence requirements of Nasdaq. The functions of the committee include, among other

 

reviewing and approving the corporate objectives that pertain to the determination of executive compensation;

 

reviewing and approving the compensation and other terms of employment of our executive officers;

 

reviewing and approving performance goals and objectives relevant to the compensation of our executive officers and assessing their performance against these goals and objectives;

 

making recommendations to our Board regarding the adoption or amendment of equity and cash incentive plans and approving amendments to such plans to the extent authorized by our Board;

 

reviewing and making recommendations to our Board regarding the type and amount of compensation to be paid or awarded to our non-employee board members;

 

reviewing and assessing the independence of compensation consultants, legal counsel and other advisors as required by Section 10C of the Exchange Act;

 

administering our equity incentive plans, to the extent such authority is delegated by our Board;

 

reviewing and approving the terms of any employment agreements, severance arrangements, change in control protections, indemnification agreements and any other material arrangements for our executive officers;

 

reviewing with management our disclosures under the caption “Compensation Discussion and Analysis” in our periodic reports or proxy statements to be filed with the SEC, to the extent such caption is included in any such report or proxy statement;

 

preparing an annual report on executive compensation that the SEC requires in our annual proxy statement; and

 

reviewing and evaluating on an annual basis the performance of the compensation committee and recommending such changes as deemed necessary with our Board.

 

The composition and function of our compensation committee comply with all applicable requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, SEC rules and regulations and Nasdaq listing rules. We will comply with future requirements to the extent they become applicable to us.

 

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Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee

 

Our nominating and corporate governance committee consists of George Mattson, Anousheh Ansari, Alice K. Jackson, and Burt Jordan. Mr. Mattson serves as the chair of the nominating and corporate governance committee. Our Board has determined that each of the members of our nominating and corporate governance committee satisfy the independence requirements of Nasdaq. The functions of this committee include, among other things:

 

identifying, reviewing and making recommendations of candidates to serve on our Board;

 

evaluating the performance of our Board, committees of our Board and individual directors and determining whether continued service on our Board is appropriate;

 

evaluating nominations by stockholders of candidates for election to our Board;

 

evaluating the current size, composition and organization of our Board and its committees and making recommendations to our Board for approvals;

 

developing a set of corporate governance policies and principles and recommending to our Board any changes to such policies and principles;

 

reviewing issues and developments related to corporate governance and identifying and bringing to the attention of our Board current and emerging corporate governance trends; and

 

reviewing periodically the nominating and corporate governance committee charter, structure and membership requirements and recommending any proposed changes to our Board, including undertaking an annual review of its own performance.

 

The composition and function of our nominating and corporate governance committee comply with all applicable requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, SEC rules and regulations and Nasdaq listing rules. We will comply with future requirements to the extent they become applicable to us.

 

Compensation Committee Interlocks and Insider Participation

 

None of the members of our compensation committee have ever been an executive officer or employee of Xos. None of our executive officers currently serve, or has served during the last completed fiscal year, on the compensation committee or board of directors of any other entity that has one or more executive officers that serve as a member of our Board or compensation committee.

 

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Limitation on Liability and Indemnification of Directors and Officers

 

Our Certificate of Incorporation eliminates our directors’ liability for monetary damages to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law. The DGCL provides that directors of a corporation will not be personally liable for monetary damages for breach of their fiduciary duties as directors, except for liability:

 

for any transaction from which the director derives an improper personal benefit;

 

for any act or omission not in good faith or that involves intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;

 

for any unlawful payment of dividends or redemption of shares; or

 

for any breach of a director’s duty of loyalty to the corporation or its stockholders.

 

If the DGCL is amended to authorize corporate action further eliminating or limiting the personal liability of directors, then the liability of our directors will be eliminated or limited to the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL, as so amended.

 

Our Certificate of Incorporation requires us to indemnify and advance expenses to, to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, our directors, officers and agents. We maintain a directors’ and officers’ insurance policy pursuant to which our directors and officers are insured against liability for actions taken in their capacities as directors and officers. Finally, our Certificate of Incorporation prohibits any retroactive changes to the rights or protections or increase the liability of any director in effect at the time of the alleged occurrence of any act or omission to act giving rise to liability or indemnification.

 

In addition, we entered into separate indemnification agreements with our directors and officers. These agreements, among other things, require us to indemnify our directors and officers for certain expenses, including attorneys’ fees, judgments, fines and settlement amounts incurred by a director or officer in any action or proceeding arising out of their services as one of our directors or officers or any other company or enterprise to which the person provides services at our request.

 

We believe these provisions in our Certificate of Incorporation are necessary to attract and retain qualified persons as directors and officers.

 

Code of Conduct for Employees, Executive Officers and Directors

 

Our Board adopted a Code of Business Conduct and Ethics (the “Code of Conduct”), applicable to all of our employees, executive officers and directors. The Code of Conduct is available on our website at www.xostrucks.com. Information contained on or accessible through our website is not a part of this prospectus, and the inclusion of our website address in this prospectus is an inactive textual reference only. The nominating and corporate governance committee of our Board is responsible for overseeing the Code of Conduct and must approve any waivers of the Code of Conduct for employees, executive officers and directors. Any amendments to the Code of Conduct, or any waivers of its requirements, will be disclosed on our website.

 

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EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION

 

The following disclosure concerns the compensation arrangements of our named executive officers for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021. As an “emerging growth company” as defined in the JOBS Act, we are not required to include a Compensation Discussion and Analysis section and have elected to comply with the scaled disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies.

 

To achieve our goals, we have designed, and intend to modify as necessary, our compensation and benefits program to attract, retain, incentivize and reward deeply talented and qualified executives who share our philosophy and desire to work towards achieving our goals.

 

We believe our compensation programs should promote the success of the Company and align executive incentives with the long-term interests of our stockholders.

 

Legacy Xos’ board of directors, with input from its Chief Executive Officer, has historically determined the compensation for Legacy Xos’ named executive officers. For the year ended December 31, 2021, Xos’ named executive officers were:

 

Dakota Semler — Chief Executive Officer

 

Christen Romero — General Counsel

 

Jose Castañeda — VP of Business Development

 

Summary Compensation Table

 

The following table sets forth information concerning the compensation of the named executive officers for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021.

 

   Year  Salary
($)(1)
   Bonus
($)
   Stock
Awards(2)
   Option
Awards(2)
   All Other
Compensation
($)
   Total
($)
 
Dakota Semler   2021  $75,000   $    —   $    —   $    —   $      —   $75,000 
Chief Executive Officer  2020  $34,615   $   $   $   $   $34,615 
                                  
Christen Romero(3) General Counsel  2021  $176,923   $100,000(4)  $2,482,500(5)  $   $   $2,759,423 
                                  
Jose Castañeda(3) VP of Business Development  2021  $206,538   $   $278,040(6)  $   $   $484,578 

 

 

(1)Salary amounts represent actual amounts paid during 2020 and 2021.

 

(2)Amounts reported represent the aggregate grant-date fair value of awards granted to our named executive officers during 2020 and 2021, computed in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 718 Compensation—Stock Compensation, or ASC 718. The assumptions used in calculating the grant-date fair value of the awards reported in this column are set forth in the notes to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. The amount does not reflect the actual economic value that may be realized by the named executive officer.